Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluid Properties

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1 second edition Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluid Properties Abhijit Y. Dandekar CRC Press Taylor & Francis Croup Boca Raton London NewYork CRC Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis an Croup, informa business

2 Contents Preface Acknowledgments Author xix xxiii xxv Chapter 1 Introduction Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluids Formation of Petroleum Reservoirs Typical Characteristics of Petroleum Reservoirs Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources Significance of Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluid Properties 5 References 8 Chapter 2 Preamble to Petroleum Reservoir Rock Properties Introduction Coring Methods Rotary Method Sidewall Coring High-Pressure Coring Important Issues Related to Coring Methods Types of Cores Whole Core Core Plug Allocation of Core Data for Measurement of Reservoir Rock Properties Handling of Reservoir Rock Core Samples Types of Core Tests Routine or Conventional Core Analysis Special Core Analysis 16 References 17 Chapter 3 Porosity Significance and Definition Types of Porosities Total or Absolute Porosity Effective Porosity Ineffective Porosity Classification of Porosity 22

3 viij Contents 3.4 Parameters That Influence Porosity Laboratory Measurement of Porosity Porosity Determination Using Routine Core Analysis Bulk Volume Measurement Pore Volume Measurement Grain Volume Measurement Nonconventional Methods of Porosity Measurements Averaging of Porosity Examples of Typical Porosities 32 Problems 33 References 34 Chapter 4 Absolute Permeability Significance and Definition Mathematical Expression of Permeability: Darcy's Law Dimensional Analysis of Permeability and Definition of a Darcy Application of Darcy's Law to Inclined Flow and Radial Flow Averaging of Permeabilities Parallel Flow Series Flow Permeability of Fractures and Channels Darcy's Law in Field Units Laboratory Measurement of Absolute Permeability Measurement of Absolute Permeability Using Liquids Measurement of Absolute Permeability Using Gases Factors Affecting Absolute Permeability Rock-Related Factors Fluid Phase-Related Factors Thermodynamic Factors Mechanical Factors Porosity and Permeability Relationships Permeabilities of Different Types of Rocks 64 Problems 65 References 66 Chapter 5 Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Reservoir Rocks Introduction Mechanical Properties Stress Strain 71

4 Contents ix Stress-Strain Relationship Factors Affecting the Stress-Strain Relationship Rock Strength Rock Mechanics Parameters Poisson's Ratio Young's Modulus Modulus of Rigidity Bulk Modulus Laboratory Measurement of Rock Strength TriaxialCell Reservoir Rock Compressibility Empirical Correlations of Formation Compressibility Electrical Properties Fundamental Concepts and the Archie Equation Formation Factor Tortuosity Cementation Factor Resistivity Index Effect of Wettability on Electrical Properties Effect of Clay on Electrical Properties 88 Problems 89 References 91 Chapter 6 Fluid Saturation Significance and Definition Distribution of Fluid Saturation in a Petroleum Reservoir Definition and Mathematical Expressions for Fluid Saturation Reservoir Rock Samples Used for Fluid Saturation Determination Laboratory Measurement of Fluid Saturation Retort Distillation Dean-Stark Extraction Assessing the Validity of Fluid Saturation Data Measured on the Plug-End Trim for the Core Plug Sample Special Types of Fluid Saturations Critical Gas Saturation Residual Oil Saturation Irreducible Water Saturation Saturation Averaging Factors Affecting Fluid Saturation Determination Effect of Drilling Muds on Fluid Saturation Skin Effect Ill

5 X Contents Effect of Fluid Expansion on Fluid Saturation Combined Effects of Mud Filtrate Invasion and Fluid Expansion on Fluid Saturation Mitigation of Mud Filtrate Invasion and Fluid Expansion Effects on Fluid Saturation Measures That Avoid or Account for Mud Filtrate Invasion Measures That Avoid or Account for Fluid Expansion 119 Problems 122 References 123 Chapter 7 Interfacial Tension and Wettability Introduction and Fundamental Concepts Interfacial and Surface Tension Effect of Pressure and Temperature on Interfacial Tension and Surface Tension Laboratory Measurement of Interfacial Tension Wettability Fundamental Concepts of Wettability Discussion on Practical Aspects of Wettability Classification/Types of Wettability Water Wet Oil Wet Intermediate Wet Fractional Wettability Mixed Wettability Measurement of Reservoir Rock Wettability Contact Angle Measurement Effect of Pressure and Temperature on Contact Angles Core Samples Used for Amott Test and USBM Methods Amott Test Modification of the Amott Test (Amott-Harvey Test) USBM Method Factors Affecting Wettability Composition of the Reservoir Oil Composition of the Brine Reservoir Pressure and Temperature Depth of the Reservoir Structure Relationship between Wettability and Irreducible Water Saturation and Residual Oil Saturation Wettability and Irreducible Water Saturation 153

6 Contents xi Wettability and Residual Oil Saturation Low-Salinity Waterflooding- Wettability-Residual Oil Saturation 156 Problems 157 References 158 Chapter 8 Capillary Pressure Introduction Basic Mathematical Expression of Capillary Pressure The Rise of Liquid in Capillaries and the Plateau Equation Dependence of Capillary Pressure on Rock and Fluid Properties Capillary Pressure and Saturation History Laboratory Measurement of Capillary Pressure Leverett's Capillary Pressure Experiments Porous Diaphragm Method Mercury Injection Method Centrifuge Method Characteristics of Capillary Pressure Curves Saturation Scale Pressure Scale Capillary Hysteresis Capillary Pressure and Permeability Converting Laboratory Capillary Pressure Data to Reservoir Conditions Averaging Capillary Pressure: J Function Calculation of Permeability from Capillary Pressure Effect of Wettability on Capillary Pressure Practical Application of Capillary Pressure Pore Size Distribution Pore Throat Sorting Connate Water Saturation Zonation, Fluid Contacts, and Initial Saturation Distribution in a Reservoir Free Water Level Oil-Water Contact Transition Zone Oil Pay Zone or Clean Oil Zone Fluid Saturation in the Gas Zone 200 Problems 200 References 202 Chapter 9 Relative Permeability Fundamental Concepts of Relative Permeability Mathematical Expressions for Relative Permeability 206

7 xii Contents 9.3 Salient Features of Gas-Oil and Water-Oil Relative Permeability Curves End-Point Fluid Saturations Base Permeabilities End-Point Permeabilities and Relative Permeability Curves Gas-Oil Relative Permeability Curves Oil-Water Relative Permeability Curves Direction of the Relative Permeability Curves Laboratory Measurement of Relative Permeability Flowchart for Relative Permeability Measurements Core Plug Samples Used in Relative Permeability Measurements Displacement Fluids and Test Conditions Room Condition Tests Partial Reservoir Condition Tests Reservoir Condition Tests Establishment of Initial Water Saturation Preserved Core Plug Samples Cleaned Core Plug Samples Determination of Base Permeability Displacement Apparatus for Relative Permeability Steady-State Technique Unsteady-State Technique Buckley-Leverett to Welge to Johnson-Bossler-Naumann Relative Permeabilities from the Alternate Method Capillary End Effect Determination of Relative Permeability from Capillary Pressure Data Factors Affecting Relative Permeability Measurements Effect of Fluid Saturation, History of Saturation, and Initial Water Saturation Effect of Wettability on Relative Permeability Effect of Rock Pore Structure Effect of Overburden Stress (Confining Stress) Effect of Clay Content and Movement of Fines Effect of Temperature Effect of Interfacial Tension, Viscosity, and Flow Velocity Peculiarities of Relative Permeability Data Assessing the Validity of Relative Permeability Data and Determination of Corey Exponents 253

8 Contents xiii 9.9 Significance of Relative Permeability Data Example of Practical Application of Relative Permeability Data Three-Phase Relative Permeability Representation of Three-Phase Relative Permeability Data Empirical Models for Three-Phase Relative Permeability 260 Problems 262 References 266 Chapter 10 Introduction to Petroleum Reservoir Fluids Introduction Chemistry of Petroleum Paraffins or Alkanes Naphthenes or Cycloparaffins Aromatics Solid Components of Petroleum Gas Hydrates Waxes Asphaltenes Diamondoids Classification of Reservoir Gases and Oils Chemical Classification of Reservoir Oils or Crude Oils Physical Classification of Crude Oils Impact of Crude Oil Characteristics on Refining Five Reservoir Fluids Other Unconventional Oils Other Hydrocarbon Fluids of Interest Compressed Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Liquefied Petroleum Gas Natural Gas Liquids Formation Waters 281 Problems 281 References 282 Chapter 11 Introduction to Phase Behavior Introduction Definition of Terms Used in Phase Behavior Phase Intermolecular Forces, Pressure, and Temperature Equilibrium 286

9 <jv Contents Component and Composition 286 ] Distinction between Gases and Liquids Types of Physical Properties Phase Rule Phase Behavior of a Pure Component Phase Diagram of a Pure Component Vapor Pressure Curve Critical Point Triple Point Melting Point Curve Sublimation-Pressure Curve Conditions Outside the P-Tc Boundary Pressure-Volume Diagram Density-Temperature Behavior of a Pure Component Determination of Vapor Pressure Phase Behavior of Two-Component or Binary Systems Phase Diagram of a Binary System Critical Point Bubble Point and Dew Point Bubble-Point and Dew-Point Curves Cricondenbar and Cricondentherm Retrograde Dew Point and Condensation Behavior of a Mixture in the Two-Phase Region Effect of Changing the System Composition Phase Behavior of Multicomponent Mixtures Construction of Phase Envelopes 304 Problems 305 References 307 Chapter 12 Phase Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids Introduction Preamble to the Phase Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids Brief Description of the Plus Fraction Classification and Identification of Fluid Type Black Oils Volatile Oils Gas Condensates Wet Gases Dry Gases Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids in the Two-Phase Region 320

10 Contents xv Saturated Hydrocarbon Reservoirs Production Trends of Five Reservoir Fluids 322 Problems 324 References 325 Chapter 13 Sampling of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids Introduction Practical Considerations of Fluid Sampling Well Conditioning Methods of Fluid Sampling Subsurface Sampling Wellhead Sampling Surface (Separator) Sampling Evaluating the Representativity of Fluid Samples: Quality Checks Factors Affecting Sample Representativity 335 Problems 337 References 337 Chapter 14 Compositional Analysis of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids Introduction Strategy of Compositional Analysis Surface Samples of Separator Gas and Liquid Blowdown Method Direct Determination of Composition Characteristics of Reservoir Fluid Composition Well-Defined Components Pseudo Fractions Plus Fraction Gas Chromatography True Boiling-Point Distillation Properties of TBP Cuts and Residue Internal Consistency of TBP Data Properties of TBP Cuts and Generalized Data Characterization of Pseudo Fractions and Residue Other Nonconventional Methods of Compositional Analysis 357 Problems 359 References 361 Chapter 15 PVT Analysis and Reservoir Fluid Properties Introduction Properties of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids Gases and Liquids 365

11 xvj Contents Ideal Gases Standard Volume Real Gases Gas Density Specific Gravity Mixtures of Gases Apparent Molecular Weight Critical Pressure and Temperature of Gas Mixtures Determination of Compressibility Factor of Gas Mixtures Determination of Density of Gas Mixtures Dry Gases Formation Volume Factor Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility Viscosity Wet Gases Recombination Cases Formation Volume Factor Gas Condensates Black Oils and Volatile Oils Formation Volume Factor Solution Gas-Oil Ratio or Gas Solubility Total Formation Volume Factor Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility Viscosity Surface Tension Volatile Oils Laboratory Tests PVT Equipment Constant Composition Expansion Differential Liberation Constant Volume Depletion Liquid Drop Out Material Balance for Condensate Composition Two-Phase Compressibility Factor Separator Tests Optimum Separator Conditions Adjustment of Black Oil Laboratory Data Combination Equations Formation Volume Factor of Oil 416

12 Contents xvii Solution Gas-Oil Ratio Formation Volume Factor of Gas Total Formation Volume Factor Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility of Oil Composite Liberation Other Sources of Obtaining the Properties of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids Empirical Correlations Standing's Empirical Correlations Prediction of Viscosity from Compositional Data Prediction of Surface Tension 427 Problems 430 References 437 Chapter 16 Vapor-Liquid Equilibria Introduction Ideal Mixtures Raoult'sLaw Dalton'sLaw Equilibrium Ratio Concept of PT Flash Flash Functions Calculation of Bubble-Point Pressure Calculation of Dew-Point Pressure Drawbacks of the Ideal Mixture Principle Empirical Correlations for Calculating Equilibrium Ratios for Real Solutions Wilson Equation Methods Based on the Concept of Convergence Pressure K-Value Charts Whitson-Torp Correlation Equations-of-State (EOS) Models Description of EOS Models van derwaals Equation of State Redlich-Kwong Equation of State Soave-Redlich-Kwong Equation of State Peng-Robinson Equation of State Concept of Fugacity Application of Equations of State to Pure Components Extension of EOS Models to Mixtures Determination of Equilibrium Ratios from EOS Models 470

13 xviii Contents VLE Calculations Using EOS Models Calculation of Bubble-Point Pressure Calculation of Dew-Point Pressure PT Flash Calculations Separator Calculations A Note about the Application of EOS Models to Real Reservoir Fluids Use of EOS Models in PVT Packages 484 Problems 485 References 486 Chapter 17 Properties of Formation Waters Introduction Compositional Characteristics of Formation Waters Bubble-Point Pressure of Formation Water Formation Volume Factor of Formation Water Density of Formation Water Viscosity of Formation Water Solubility of Hydrocarbons in Formation Water Solubility of Formation Water in Hydrocarbons Water Content of Gaseous Hydrocarbons Water Content of Liquid Hydrocarbons Compressibility of Formation Water 499 Problems 500 References 501 Author Index 503 Subject Index 509

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