1 Oxygen Optode What is this sensor? This sensor is used to detect dissolved oxygen and oxygen saturation levels in a given body of water i. Oxygen sensors detect Dissolved Oxygen, often abbreviated to DO. Although water is made of hydrogen and oxygen, the sensor only measures free oxygen, or oxygen that is not bound to another molecule ii. The sensor also measures the saturation of oxygen in the water. This is the amount of oxygen the water can hold relative to the atmosphere. Oxygen saturation is usually expressed as a percent, but it is possible for this number to be over 100% saturation. Oxygen, like other elements and compounds can be mixed into and dissolved in water. A good analogy for dissolved oxygen is when sugar is added to hot tea. Like the sugar, the oxygen present in the water will be invisible, but is an important factor in the end result. The sensor is referred to as an optode, because it uses the properties of light, (opto: vision, light ; -ode: way, path ) rather than another method such as a chemical reaction or electricity, to take measurements. How does an oxygen optode work? Detecting oxygen in water can be done in a number of ways, including chemical titrations or with the use of electrodes. Optodes, in very general terms, create their measurements by emitting light and measuring the luminescence (similar to a glow) given off by the oxygen in the water iii. To take a measurement, the optode emits a specific wavelength of light which excites the molecules of the substance being measured. These molecules then emit a slightly different wavelength of light in response to excitation, which the sensor detects. Using various calculations, the sensor then determines how much of the substance (in this case oxygen) is present in the water around the sensor. How is oxygen measured? (ml/l), (mg/l) or (ppm) Oxygen can be measured in milligrams per litre of water (written as mg/l), milliliters per litre (written as ml/l) or as parts per million (written as ppm). For example, if the oxygen sensor gives a reading of 8.3mg/l, this would mean that there are 8.3 milligrams of oxygen in a litre of water. Since this measurement is in grams, it reflects the mass of the oxygen in a volume of water. Using ml/l, this measurement would be 5.7ml/l; this is the approximate volume of the
2 oxygen in the water, rather than the mass. The volume of oxygen is more dependent on the temperature and pressure of the surrounding water, as the volume of a gas can be different depending on the overall temperature and salinity. Ocean Networks Canada observatories measure the volume of oxygen in a litre of water, and thus data is written ml/l, though you may find mg/l in some publications. To convert between mg/l and ml/l, you can use these conversions. These conversions assume certain values for temperature, salinity, and pressure, but are reasonably accurate. Convert mg/l to ml/l ml/l = mg/l X 0.7 mg/l= ml/l X 1.39 Occasionally, oxygen may be written as parts per million. In the above example, a reading of 8.3ppm would mean that water contains 8.3 parts oxygen per million parts water. What is the normal range for this data? What variables influence it? Quick general reference: Detailed explanation: Anoxic Hypoxic Normal/favourable High 0.35 ml/l < 1.4 ml/l 5-7 ml/l >10 ml/l Dissolved oxygen in salt water is generally lower than in fresh water, and has a relatively small numeric range. For example, water with less than 1.4 ml/l of oxygen is referred to as hypoxic, which means low oxygen iv. Water with less than 0.35 ml/l is termed as anoxic water, and is an acute or extreme example of hypoxia. Water with 10-11ml/l of oxygen has a relatively high concentration of oxygen, though it can reach near or above 15 ml/l in very favorable conditions. Oxygen levels generally associated with healthy biological process are in the 5-7ml/l range. Bear in mind, dissolved oxygen is only one indicator of health and what is normal for one area may be very unusual for another. Furthermore, it is normal for oxygen levels to fluctuate throughout the year, perhaps due to seasonal changes in currents, biological activity or even human interference (e.g. pollution). Oxygen may vary or show patterns based on these parameters: Temperature: Cold water can hold more oxygen than warm water. o ê temperature = é oxygen Salinity: Salty water contains less oxygen than freshwater.
3 Depth: Shallow water can exchange gases with the atmosphere, resulting in a greater variability of oxygen. Primary production: the process of photosynthesis by phytoplankton can cause an increase in oxygen. Decomposition: decay can diminish the amount of oxygen present in water. Location of the sensor: location, in terms of both geography and depth, can affect the oxygen reading. Biology: animals in an environment will consume the available oxygen through respiration. Seasons: Oxygen levels can change seasonally because of the combination of seasonal changes of the factors above, such as a seasonal plankton bloom. Pollution: Human activity can introduce additional factors which may alter and often lead to deterioration of oxygen levels. Applications of principles and variables Dissolved oxygen concentrations are an important parameter for understanding a body of water and can be used to determine seasonal trends, identify a parcel of water (and where it originated), determine the overall health of a body of water, and can contribute to our general understanding of cycles and processes in the ocean. Variables and trends affecting dissolved oxygen (and their general significance in the ocean), are discussed below. These are in alphabetical order. Bear in mind, many of these factors interact and trends or variations in dissolved oxygen are often attributed to more than a single factor or variable. Biology: Many organisms within an ecosystem depend on dissolved oxygen, and their presence, absence, or even death can be linked with dissolved oxygen levels. For example, animals which require oxygen are called aerobic and use oxygen from water in the process of respiration. In the oceans, some organisms take in oxygen through pores and moist membranes on their body surface; other organisms, such as fish, obtain their oxygen through membranes in the special structures of the gills. Different animals will require different levels of dissolved oxygen to live comfortably in an environment. If dissolved oxygen concentrations become too low, animals may be forced to move to other locations. This may, in turn, cause a population shift or overabundance of other species in an area. If the animals are unable to move to areas of higher oxygen concentration, this may result in a die-off of particular species. If the water becomes anoxic, it may result in a die-off of all species found in that area. This data may be supported with data from cameras. Depth: Oxygen concentrations vary with depth. Dissolved oxygen can enter water through passive exchange with the atmosphere at the surface and also through wind and wave action. Measurements taken at shallow depths are often more variable than those taken at depth,
4 because the oxygen in the water may change depending on action at the surface. Equally, oxygen can be affected by tidal action, which is more exaggerated in shallow areas. Although this increased mixing action often results in considerable variability, there is generally a higher concentration of oxygen in the top most layers of the ocean. Water at depth is generally lower in oxygen as there are fewer available mechanisms to replace oxygen lost due to respiration or decomposition. For example, water at depth is not able to exchange gases with the surface, nor is it able to gain oxygen through primary production (plants). Furthermore, the processes of decomposition (which uses oxygen) usually occurs on the sea floor and thus, as we observe water at depth, it is not able to regain oxygen that is lost through natural processes. When studying dissolved oxygen at depth, instrument readings are generally lower and more consistent. In addition, differences in dissolved oxygen values with depth (i.e. vertical) are also due to differences in the composition of the water column. In some areas, such as the Saanich inlet, a seasonal refresh occurs as large oxygenated water masses enter the inlet at certain times a year. Oxygen can represent a signature of where water masses originated. Decomposition: Decomposition can also greatly affect oxygen concentrations. Bacteria use up oxygen (through respiration) when they decompose organic matter. If there is little or no renewal of oxygenated water (i.e. deep waters) the process of decomposition can lead to rapid and significant oxygen depletion. In some situations, an excess of nutrients can cause a large bloom of phytoplankton. The phytoplankton can start to die and sink down from the surface when the nutrients are used up. Bacteria decompose this sinking phytoplankton in deep water and at the sea floor causing an overall loss of oxygen to the water (hypoxia). For example, many bodies of water have become contaminated with fertilizers containing nitrates and phosphate from farm and agricultural run-off. This excess of nutrients (called eutrophication) causes plankton to bloom in excessive amounts, which then die in a number of days and then begin to decompose. This causes all the available oxygen to be used by bacteria, rendering the water hypoxic or even anoxic. This can result in large die offs of marine animal (e.g. fish, crabs) or the displacement of species. In the data, you may notice an upswing in oxygen levels (e.g. produced during a phytoplankton bloom), followed by a steady decline in oxygen levels over time (e.g. due to animals respiring / decomposing). This conclusion can also be supported with data from the fluorometer, which will indicate a large plankton bloom is occurring. Location: Location can contribute to dissolved oxygen readings. Although certain dissolved oxygen levels are favourable, all bodies of water will have a normal oxygen range for that area. This means that an area may have a consistently high or low reading, but the animals in this area are adapted to that level of oxygen. When comparing oxygen levels, it is important to have a
5 baseline of normal data for that area, as what may be extreme in one area may be normal in another location. Primary production: Oxygen is a by-product of photosynthesis. Plants within a body of water generate oxygen that contributes to the overall amount of oxygen found in the water. Often, the largest contributor to this cycle are microscopic phytoplankton. Phytoplankton usually appear in seasonal blooms that contribute a significant amount of oxygen to the surrounding water. In the data, you will notice seasonal blooms that generally appear within a 6 8 week window during the spring and fall (see figure below). The actual time of the bloom will vary from year to year, and can be supported with data from the fluorometer. Pollution: Agricultural run-off, sewage, and other human-induced nutrient influxes can create unseasonal or large blooms of phytoplankton. These can cause fluctuations in oxygen levels as the phytoplankton generate oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis. Alternatively, the death and decomposition of phytoplankton can create depleted oxygen levels. In the data, you may be able to extrapolate changes from pollution, due to proximity to shore and human and agricultural activities. This data could be supported with data from the fluorometer.
6 Salinity: Salty water contains less oxygen than fresh water, and thus the overall salinity will cause water to have different oxygen levels. Near the surface, evaporation can cause salt concentrations to increase, resulting in water that is lower in dissolved oxygen. Equally, water in cold, salty arctic seas may have a lower concentration of oxygen during the winter when much of the fresh water is captured in ice. Surface sensor may detect higher levels of oxygen during spring melt, when the water has a lower level of salinity. Finally, large freshwater influxes from streams and rivers can result in reduced salinity, allowing the water to hold more oxygen. Within the data, you may notice changes in relation to salinity which may also be related to temperature and seasonal changes. Seasons: Dissolved oxygen can also vary due to seasonal factors. Season and location are often tied together as a factor in determining changes or patterns in dissolved oxygen. For example, in many areas, the seasonal plankton bloom renews the oxygen that has been removed from the water. Equally, during winter months, there may be little or no primary production, but significant wind mixing. This will result in a seasonal pattern of oxygen cycling that can be observed over the long term. Equally, as temperatures drop the solubility of oxygen increases, but water trapped below seasonal ice also loses oxygen to decomposition. Oxygen concentrations are often impacted by a number or factors that can occur at the same time, depending on the seasons. Within the data, you may notice trends that follow seasonal plankton blooms and temperature changes. Temperature: Dissolved oxygen levels are highly dependent on water temperature. Cold water can hold considerably more oxygen than warm water because of the compression of the gases at lower temperatures. In the data, it is possible to see higher oxygen levels in the winter months when the water is colder and is able to accommodate a larger volume of dissolved oxygen. As depth increases, the temperature of the water also decreases, but oxygen concentrations at depth may become slightly skewed due to other factors such as respiration/decomposition. Although the water can hold more oxygen because it is colder, there may not be oxygen available for uptake, thus readings remain low. In the data, you will notice trends related to temperature. These trends can occur on a daily, weekly, monthly or seasonal basis.
7 Ideas for classroom explorations This section is intended to inspire you and your students to explore different ways of accessing, recording and interpreting data. These suggestions can be used as is, or can be freely modified to suit your needs. They can also be used to generate discussion and ideas, or as potential staring points for projects. Record the oxygen levels and temperature on a daily basis. Watch for seasonal trends to appear. Inquire, are atmospheric changes reflected in the water data at the same time, or is there a delay? Monitor oxygen levels, chlorophyll and atmospheric conditions. What is their relationship over time? Can your data help you make further predictions? Compare oxygen and temperature readings after specific atmospheric events. For example, do the data change during or after a heavy rain? Compare local readings to those in other locations. Will one predict or precede the trend of another? What other factors may account for the change in your data? Explore the local biology and using the camera, determine which animals are more or less tolerant of low oxygen. Determine, if possible, human impacts on the local ecosystems that may account for changes in oxygen. Ideas for projects This section contains suggestions for long-term projects you and your students may be interested in investigating using the data. These projects may require support from multiple data sources, experts in the field or additional experimentation. Compare the data and inquire about relationship among other seasonal trends. For example, during fish migrations is there a trend in the data? In successful spawning or fishing years, are there differences observed from unsuccessful spawning or fishing years? Compare data from several years. Can a seasonal or annual trend be determined? Can this trend be attributed to something using additional data, anecdotal evidence or both? Compare multiple stations using the same variables. Explore how oxygen levels change over an hourly basis. Do we see biological responses over short time-scales as well? Investigate man-made corrections to human-caused low oxygen. For example, if low oxygen is suspected to be caused by farm run-off, what measures could be put in place or invented to correct or prevent the problem?
8 Common misconceptions or difficult concept elements This section is intended to help you anticipate where students may struggle with difficult concept elements or ideas. We ve noted content that may require additional support for students to fully understand, or content that may lead to misconceptions. Oxygen levels can reach more than 100% saturation. Saturation is not the same as the amount of dissolved oxygen. Saturation is the amount of oxygen the water could hold in relation to the atmosphere. Thus, oxygen may be supersaturated and have more oxygen than the atmosphere, but the dissolved oxygen could still be relatively low or high, depending on the variables affecting the dissolved oxygen level. Too much oxygen can be as bad or worse as too little oxygen for some fish and other organisms. More oxygen does not, necessarily, mean better living conditions for the endemic species in that area. Oxygen can be measured in volume and mass, and they are not the same thing. As gases are compressible, a given mass of gas will have a greater or smaller volume depending on temperature. Conversions between volume and mass generally assume a certain temperature, so some variability in accuracy may result from conversions. Although a large bloom of phytoplankton will contribute to an upswing in oxygen in the short term, after they die, this can result in a depletion of oxygen in the long term. An extreme example of this phenomenon is eutrophication, caused by an excess of nutrients from human activity. Deeper water is typically cooler than surface water, and cooler water can hold more oxygen. Keep in mind though, as material from the surface (i.e. sinking phytoplankton) sinks through layers of water, oxygen in each of those deeper and deeper layers of water can be lost to decomposition, thus as material sinks through the water causing depletion, the level of oxygen in the water becomes lower. i Oxygen Optodes. (2013, January 1).. Retrieved July 4, 2014, from Optodes- 2 ii Fondriest Environmental, Inc. Dissolved Oxygen. Fundamentals of Environmental Measurements. Fondriest Environmental, 19 Nov Web. Today s Date. < measurements/parameters/water- quality/dissolved- oxygen/ >. iii Scott, E. (2007). Luminescence based measurement of dissolved oxygen in natural waters [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from iv Ecological Society of America. Hypoxia [online PDF]. Retrieved from:
Seawater Earth is an Ocean Planet Topics Origin of the Ocean and Atmosphere Hydrologic Cycle Biogeochemical Cycle Seawater Salinity Variations in Seawater Chemistry Carbonic Acid System Topics Origin of
The Movement of Ocean Water Currents Ocean Current movement of ocean water that follows a regular pattern influenced by: weather Earth s rotation position of continents Surface current horizontal movement
Intended Class: Marine Science Intended Grade Level: 11-12 Neutrally Buoyant No More Time Allotment: Two, 55-minute periods. Day one should be lecture, background information and giving the students time
Deep Water Currents Lab Background: Anyone visiting the seashore is struck by the constant motion of water traveling on the surface of the ocean in the form of waves. But beneath the ocean's surface, water
Name: Class: _ Date: _ OCN201 Spring14 1 True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Short residence time elements are uniformly distributed in the oceans 2. Thermohaline circulation
Chapter 9 Insolation control of monsoons 2004/4/15 Introduction Monsoon circulations exist on Earth today because the land responds to seasonal changes in solar radiation much more quickly than does the
Salinity and Dissolved Oxygen (D.O.) Lecture 2 Salinity defn Salinity is the saltiness or dissolved salt content of a body of water. fresh water (or sweet water) is less than 0.05%. brackish water is 0.03
Lesson: Ocean Circulation By Keith Meldahl Corresponding to Chapter 9: Ocean Circulation As this figure shows, there is a connection between the prevailing easterly and westerly winds (discussed in Chapter
Ch 15 Earth s Oceans SECTION 15.1 An Overview of Oceans 38 points In your textbook, read about modern oceanography. For each item write the word that meets the description. (5 points) 1. German research
Directed Reading for Content Mastery Overview Oceans Directions: Use the following terms to complete the concept map below. wind salts climate gases densitytides nekton Seawater contains dissolved 1. and
Name Date Part 1: Introduction to the In part one, you will learn about food chains in one of the major environments in the Hudson River: marsh, brackish channel, freshwater channel, or freshwater shallows.
Slide 1 Dissolved Oxygen I can t breath in the water but the fish can! Slide 2 Oxygen Oxygen is one of the fundamental resources required by life forms on Earth. Aquatic ecosystems have a wide assortment
1 Experiment C-6 Gas Solubility Objectives To measure dissolved oxygen in water by using an oxygen sensor. To learn about physical factors that influence oxygen solubility in water. To examine the dissolved
OCEANOGRAPHY STUDY GUIDE Chapter 2 Section 1 1. Most abundant salt in ocean. Sodium chloride; NaCl 2. Amount of Earth covered by Water 71% 3. Four oceans: What are they? Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Indian
DISSOLVED OXYGEN SENSOR BT34i USER S GUIDE CENTRE FOR MICROCOMPUTER APPLICATIONS http://www.cma-science.nl Short description The CMA Dissolved Oxygen (DO) sensor BT34i measures the concentration of dissolved
Potomac River Water Quality: Current Status & Trends Tom Parham Maryland Department of Natural Resources November 13 th, 2014 Presentation Overview 2014 Chesapeake Bay Dissolved Oxygen Conditions Historic
Chap.10 - Water Density and Layering in Lakes Lake Stratification Epilimnion upper part of lake. Even temperature due to wind mixing Hypolimnion bottom layer of lake water. No wind mixing Thermocline or
Encyclopedic Entry For Educator tidal energy For the complete encyclopedic entry with media resources, visit: http://www.connectenergyed.org/education/encyclopedia/tidal-energy/ Tidal energy is produced
RECREATIONAL PONDS AND LAKES POND ECOLOGY AQUATIC PLANTS & FISH F.S. Conte Department of Animal Science University of California Davis Photos By Flickr AQUATIC PLANTS POND HEALTH Chemical Recycling Oxygen
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET Compressed 99% NITROGEN and 1% HELIUM Product Name 1. IDENTIFICATION OF THE MATERIAL AND SU 1. IDENTIFICATION OF THE MATERIAL AND SUPPLIER Supplier Name Global Gases Australia
CHAPTER 1 3 Global Winds and Local Winds SECTION The Atmosphere BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What causes wind? What is the Coriolis effect?
1 Chapter 6 The Rime of the Ancient Mariner: Transcript 1. Jenny: Okay, as you guys look at these words, what do you think of? 2. Haja: Water 3. Jenny: Moyatu? 4. Moyatu: Um, water, like in Africa, how
Background The changing temperatures of the tropical Pacific Ocean affect climate variability all over Earth. Ocean warming and cooling dramatically affect human activities by changing weather patterns
Interdependence of Plants and Animals Computer 14 Plants and animals share many of the same chemicals throughout their lives. In most ecosystems, O 2, CO 2, water, food and nutrients are exchanged between
Aim To examine how the differences in water movement between salt water and freshwater and how they interact with each other. Students completing the worksheets will also develop writing and literacy skills.
Assessment Chapter Test B The Movement of Ocean Water USING KEY TERMS Use the terms from the following list to complete the sentences below. Each term may be used only once. Some terms may not be used.
Dissolved Oxygen in Water Computer 12A Although water is composed of oxygen and hydrogen atoms, biological life in water depends upon another form of oxygen molecular oxygen. Oxygen is used by organisms
Ocean Motion Notes Chapter 13 & 14 What is a Wave? Wave: movement of energy through a body of water How are Waves Caused? Caused mostly by wind Wind blowing on the water transmits energy to the water Size
The Composition of Seawater Salinity Salinity is the total amount of solid material dissolved in water. Most of the salt in seawater is sodium chloride, common table salt. Element Percent Element Percent
Answers to Worksheet Questions Name Period Date Now that Dr. Widder prepared you as a diver, it is time to investigate the unique properties of life in deep sea. You and your group will have 10 minutes
Question 1: Define vital capacity. What is its significance? Vital capacity is the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inspiration. It is about 3.5 4.5 litres in the human body. It
El Niño Lecture Notes There is a huge link between the atmosphere & ocean. The oceans influence the atmosphere to affect climate, but the atmosphere also influences the ocean, which can also affect climate.
Chapter 4 Worksheet 2 Meteorology Name: Circle the letter that corresponds to the correct answer 1) If the air temperature remains constant, evaporating water into the air will the dew point and the relative
The Origins of Life UNIT 2 Chapter 3 Name: Section: Date: Chapter 3 Lab/Activity #2 Elodea and Photosynthesis Introduction: Photosynthetic organisms (cyanobacteria) first evolved about 3.5 billion years
Sampling Considerations for Equilibrium Dissolved Oxygen [DO] Sensors Abstract Boiler water in the low parts per billion dissolved oxygen concentration range can be significantly contaminated by oxygen
CARL BLACKWELL LAKE MANAGEMENT PLAN Background Lake Carl Blackwell impounds Stillwater Creek, 10 miles west of Stillwater in Payne County, Oklahoma (Figure 1). The lake covers 3,370 surface acres and was
Educat i onser i es Di ssol vedoxygengui de Dissolved Oxygen Guide Introduction Dissolved oxygen probes provide a convenient approach to essentially direct measurement of molecular oxygen. The membrane
5th Grade 60 minutes LIGHT IN THE DEEP SEA Adapted from NOAA s All That Glitters Oregon Science Content Standards: 5.2 Interaction and Change: Force, energy, matter, and organisms interact within living
SCI-5 MES_Lamb_Oceans Exam not valid for Paper Pencil Test Sessions [Exam ID:53S2JF 1 Two children are swimming and jumping in the waves at the beach. On which part of the ocean are they standing? A Abyssal
9/28/2017 OBJ: SWBAT determine the solubility of 10 compounds 1. What makes Magic Sand hydrophobic? Solutions Pure Substances & Mixtures o What's the matter? o Pure Substances have a definite set of physical
Biology Unit 2, Structure of Life, Lab Activity 2-3 Cellular respiration is the release of energy from organic compounds by metabolic chemical oxidation in the mitochondria within each cell. Cellular respiration
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 17289 First edition 2014-07-01 Water quality Determination of dissolved oxygen Optical sensor method Qualité de l eau Dosage de l oxygène dissous Méthode optique à la sonde Reference
Abstract Determining the Oxygen Transmission Rate of Carton Packages Ellinor Folkeson Verification & Validation, Package & Distribution Solutions, Carton Bottle, Tetra Pak Department of Chemical Engineering,
Effects of climate change on fish spawning grounds and larvae drift Frode Vikebø email@example.com Risør 15.08.2012 Objectives What are the prerequisites for modelling drift, growth and survival of early stages
9.3 If you have been to a beach on a hot summer day, you have likely cooled off by going for a dip in the water. The water, which is cooler than you are, removes thermal energy from your body, making you
Degassing Degassing Solutions IDEX Health & Science degassers improve fluidic instrument precision and reliability by removing dissolved gases from fluids before they outgas and form problem-causing bubbles
Aerobic Respiration Computer 17 Aerobic cellular respiration is the process of converting the chemical energy of organic molecules into a form immediately usable by organisms. Glucose may be oxidized completely
The impact of environmental factors on fish food security in West Africa Project Scoping Meeting on Securing the Foundations for Fish Food Security in a Changing Ocean in West and Central Africa Abidjan,
Build Your Own Zooplankton Grade Level: This specific lesson is geared towards grades 9-12, but it can be modified for older or younger students. Lesson Summary: Students will use their knowledge of zooplankton
Chapter 1, Lesson 5: Air, It s Really There Key Concepts In a gas, the particles (atoms and molecules) have weak attractions for one another. They are able to move freely past each other with little interaction
MET 4300 Lecture 8 Atmospheric Stability Stability Concept Stable: Ball returns to original position Neutral: Ball stays wherever it is placed Unstable: Displacement grows with time. Atmospheric Stability
Technical Note ISE-730 and DO2-100 Overview In 1954, Dr. Leland Clark invented the first membrane-covered electrode designed to measure the concentration of oxygen in blood, or solution. This electrode
Overview Directions: Complete the concept map using the terms in the list below. weather exosphere coldest air temperature ionosphere stratosphere 1. which is the region of space travel thermosphere which
October 2017 How does climate change make fish late for dinner? Authors: Xavier Chevillot, Hilaire Drouineau, Patrick Lambert, Laure Carassou, Benoit Sautour and Jeremy Lobry Associate editors: Gogi Kalka,
Hamurana Stream water movement in Lake Rotorua NIWA Client Report: HAM2007-031 March 2007 NIWA Project: BOP06211 Hamurana Stream water movement in Lake Rotorua Max Gibbs Eddie Bowman John Nagels Prepared
Dimension 2 Cross Cutting Concepts Dimension 1 Science and Engineering Practices FRAMEWORK FOR K-12 SCIENCE EDUCATION 2012 USA Standards Correlation The Dimension I practices listed below are called out
Revised April 2000 Agdex 716 (B36) Why aerate? Aeration of Dugouts or Ponds with Compressed Air D ugout aeration improves water quality by maintaining dissolved oxygen levels. Of all the methods used for
REVIEW All organisms (plants and animals) need energyto carry out their life processes. The chemical reaction which provides this energy is called. In larger animals it is often called respiration because
Homeostasis and Negative Feedback Concepts and Breathing Experiments 1 I. Homeostasis and Negative Feedback Homeostasis refers to the maintenance of relatively constant internal conditions. For example,
TRIAXYS Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Comparison Study By Randolph Kashino, Axys Technologies Inc. Tony Ethier, Axys Technologies Inc. Reo Phillips, Axys Technologies Inc. February 2 Figure 1. Nortek
DISSOLVING AND SOLUBILITY QUICK REVIEW: Homogeneous mixtures: a solution of substances in which no settling occurs (looks like one thing). A solution occurs when the particles of the components slip in
Activity at a Glance Grade: 6 9 Subject: Science : Category: Life Science, Earth Science Topic: Ecology, Animals, Living Things Time Required Two 45-minute periods Level of Complexity Medium Activity Overview
Lecture 24 El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Part 1 The most dominant phenomenon in the interannual variation of the tropical oceanatmosphere system is the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) over the
Can Wind Energy Be Captured in New York City? Case Study on Urban Wind based on a Feasibility Study by Orange Line Studio Spark 101 Educator Resource Copyright 2013 Defining Key Concepts What is wind power?
CTB3365x Introduction to Water Treatment D4b Aeration Doris van Halem Did you know that there are not just gasses in your glass of sparkling coke, but also in the tap water you drink? Welcome to the water
Adaptations of Desert Plants Topic The shape and surface area of a leaf are related to its ability to gain and release water. Introduction Deserts are biomes that present great difficulties to their inhabitants.
FLOATINGISLANDINTERNATIONAL From Phosphorus to Fish: Beneficial Use of Excess Nutrients Project Location: Shepherd, Montana Fishing can be the primary method for transitioning excess nonpoint source nutrients
R E V I S E D D A T E 0 4 / 2 0 0 9 Guidelines Growing Oysters with the OysterGro System (OGS) Congratulations, you have just invested in one of the most efficient oyster growing system there is, the OysterGro.
MISSOURI STREAM TEAM VOLUNTEER WATER QUALITY MONITORING PROGRAM Standard Operating Procedure ORIGINAL EFFECTIVE DATE: January 30, 2018 RECERTIFICATION DATE: SOP TITLE: MoST-VWQM-SOP: Dissolved Oxygen Measurement
Texas Water Resources Institute November/December 1982 Volume 8 No. 6 A Precise Environment By Lou Ellen Ruesink, Editor, Texas Water Resources Aquarium enthusiasts know just how particular fish are about
Dropsy (Ascites) By Duncan Griffiths Before we can understand what dropsy is we must first understand two natural occurring scientific processes namely, Osmosis and Diffusion. Osmosis is the movement of
1. According to your Reference Tables, which substance forms an unsaturated solution when 80 grams of the substance is dissolved in 100 grams of H 2 O at 10 C? (A) KI (B) KNO 3 (C) NaNO 3 (D) NaCl 2. The
GRADE 6: Materials 1 Solubility UNIT 6M.1 7 hours About this unit This is the first of four units on materials in Grade 6. This unit builds on the study of the properties of water in Unit 5M.1. Unit 7M.1
MANURE GAS DANGERS Since the increased use of manure storage facilities in agriculture there have been numerous instances where a farmer, family member, or employee has been asphyxiated or succumbed to
An Unwelcome Newcomer An Unwelcome Newcomer This article is provided courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History. million eggs each year. Then Invasion of the Zebra Mussels the young mussels float
Bay Area Scientists in Schools Presentation Plan Lesson Name Measuring Carbon Dioxide with Vernier Probes Presenter(s) Derek Vigil Currey, Ph.D student in Physics at UCB Grade Level 5th Standards Connection(s)
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET COMPRESSED DIVING AIR Product Name 1. IDENTIFICATION OF THE MATERIAL AND SU 1. IDENTIFICATION OF THE MATERIAL AND SUPPLIER Supplier Name Global Gases Australia Pty Ltd Address
NATURE OF SEAWATER: SALINITY, TEMPERATURE, DENSITY, AND PRESSURE surface salinities temperature profiles of the ocean; the thermocline seawater density dynamics deep ocean pressures Part A. Surface Salinities
4.2 Pressure and Air Masses (6.3.2) Explore This Phenomena www.ck12.org Everybody loves a picnic. Your friends and you are headed up the canyon to enjoy the mountains. While driving you feel a slight discomfort
Lesson Plan Filter-Feeding in Reef Sponges Focus Observe and describe filter-feeding in sponges and explore the ecological role of sponges on coral reefs Focus Questions What characterizes a sponge (Poriferan)?
Page 1 of 7 1.0 Purpose This program covers Ardent policy related to Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) hazards in the workplace. The intent of this program is to provide employees with knowledge and guidelines enabling
Introduction to Climatology GEOGRAPHY 300 The Hydrological Cycle Tom Giambelluca University of Hawai i at Mānoa Atmospheric Moisture Changes of Phase of Water Changes of Phase of Water 1 Changes of Phase
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 CHAPTER 7 Ocean Circulation Words Ocean currents Moving seawater Surface ocean currents Transfer heat from warmer to cooler areas Similar to pattern of major wind belts