Surfers Against Sewage Are Calling For A Review of the UK s Bathing Water Sample Sites.

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1 Surfers Against Sewage Are Calling For A Review of the UK s Bathing Water Sample Sites. Welsh Report Surfers Against Sewage (SAS) believe the weekly bathing water samples required by the EU Bathing Water Directive should be taken from the area of the bathing water that presents bathers and water users with the greatest source of pollution, if a significant amount of bathers and recreational water users can be expected to regularly use that area of beach. Surfers Against Sewage are concerned that 45 designated bathing water sample spots around the UK do not provide a true guide to the water quality that a bather or water user might experience at our bathing waters, including 11 in Wales. The implications are incredible concerning, as our widely promoted water quality results could be misleading the public about the potential health risk at a number of the UK s bathing water. The Bathing Water Directive states (Art3.3) the monitoring point should be where most bathers are expected or the greatest risk of pollution is expected, according to the bathing water profile. In the UK Regulations (Schedule 4.1) Defra have transposed the obligation to locate the monitoring point where the most bathers are expected. This was part of the original transposition The European Commission s Reference Document for the monitoring and assessment requirements of the revised Bathing Water Directive published August 2014 states: A bathing water is not defined by its physical size. The length of its corresponding beach can vary between bathing waters and the distribution of bathers within a bathing water can be uneven. If there are, or could be, significant differences in water quality within any discrete area, then appropriate measures (such as ensuring monitoring targets the area presenting 1

2 the greatest risk to bathers, or sub-dividing the area into separately identified bathing waters) must be taken. A single location for collecting a sample should be designated regardless of the length of a bathing beach provided it is representative of the quality of the entire bathing water and a large numbers of bathers are distributed evenly along a bathing beach. Where large numbers of bathers are distributed unevenly along the length of a beach or a bathing water does not meet the requirements of uniform water quality that would satisfy the conditions for a grouped bathing water, it must be separated into individual bathing waters. Surfers Against Sewage have also included bathing waters where sample spots appear to be placed away from the majority of bathing resources. Coastal observations suggest the majority of beach users utilize the areas surrounding the entrance to the beach. Only the minority seems to arrive at the beach and walk a significant distance from the main access route/car park/infrastructure. For this reason the recommendations given below are not only based around local knowledge from SAS s extensive regional rep network but also the positioning of car parks, beach access routes, cafes, shops, lifeguard huts etc. There are 11 sites highlighted for review in this document and their regional distribution are shown below: 2

3 South Wales East Wales North Wales Sandy Bay, Porthcawl Broad Haven Central Colwyn Bay Aberafan Aberporth Rhyl Swansea Bay Clarach South Rhyl East Amroth Central Aberdyfi 3

4 Surfers Against Sewage recommendation to review the sampling point at Sandy Bay, Porthcawl Background Sandy Beach is a long, gently sloping, sandy beach with a small harbour at the western end backed by sand dunes to the east and a promenade and Coney Island Amusement Park to the west. The amusement park with kiosks, cafes, restaurants, bars, pubs, fish and chip shops, parking and toilets is located just behind the beach with more facilities available in the town. Swimming, bathing and surfing are all carried out here. With relatively consistent surf, sheltered beach break peaks can be found here offshore in NNW winds, preferred swell direction is WSW. There are several sewer overflows on either side of Sandy Bay with three to the east at Trecco Bay and more to the west. Reasons for proposed change Sandy Beach, Porthcawl is a long, popular beach backed by a promenade and amusement park. A CSO discharges to the sea at the western end of the beach which is approximately 300m from the sampling point, located at the centre of the beach. Due to the popularity of the beach and the proximity of Porthcawl and the seaside infrastructure that accompanies it the entire beach is used for bathing with the car park also located at the western side, close to the CSO. 4

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6 Car parks, amusement park, restaurants, cafes, beach access etc The sampling point several hundred metres from the CSO The CSO discharges at the western end of the bay Recommendation The proposed sampling point is at a point close to the main car park and beach access route Based on the information provided above, we would recommend that the sampling point be moved to the western end of the bay to be closer to the main bather area and the CSO. 6

7 Surfers Against Sewage recommendation to review the sampling point at Aberafan Background A 4km stretch of beach located between the Rivers Afan and Neath, Aberafan (or Aberavon) is backed by Port Talbot and just east of Swansea. Aberafan is long, sandy beach popular with surfers with heavy industry and the relevant infrastructure behind. The usual facilities expected of a large town can be found behind the beach with cafes, restaurants, shops, parking and toilets can all be found close to the beach. Swimming, bathing, body boarding, paddle boarding and surfing are all popular here, however beginners should be wary of the breakwater. While there are no sewer overflows discharging directly onto the beach here there are a large number that discharge into the rivers at either end of the beach. Reasons for proposed change Aberafan is a popular beach and, with the large town of Port Talbot behind it, the entire length of it is used by bathers and water users. With many sewer overflows discharging into the rivers at either end of the beach and the sheer size of the beach, Against Sewage would expect multiple bathing water sample spots where bathers are using the sea. This is particularly true at the eastern end which is popular with surfers and water users and is several hundred metres from the sampling point. 7

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9 The River Neath also has a number of sewer overflows discharging into it The current sampling point is some distance from the CSOs Several sewer overflows discharge upstream into the River Afan Recommendation Based on the information provided above, we would recommend that, due to the popularity of this stretch of coastline and the infrastructure behind the beach, the beach be re-designated as a number of bathing waters to best serve bathers/water users. 9

10 Surfers Against Sewage recommendation to review the sampling point at Swansea Bay Background Swansea Bay is a 9km stretch of sand, pebble and mud flats that stretches from Mumbles Head to the River Tawe. It slopes gently and at low tide the waters-edge is a long way from the beach front. Restaurants, cafes, toilets, shops, parking, a University and a slipway are available here with more facilities in the nearby city of Swansea. Sailing, boating, power boating, jet skiing, canoeing, kayaking, swimming, surfing and bathing all take place here. It is also a Watersports Centre of Excellence. Numerous sewer overflows discharge into the sea and waterways here including several that discharge into the River Tawe at the eastern end of the beach. Reasons for proposed change Fronting a relatively built up area, with all the relevant infrastructure, Swansea Bay is a long, popular stretch of beach with numerous river and sewer overflows discharging across its length. There are also a number of main bather areas a significant distance (several kilometres) from the sampling point such as in Mayals to the west and the University, around 1km to the west of the sampling point, close to a CSO and river discharge. 10

11 11

12 Recommended sampling spots are at popular bather areas. Sampling spot CSOs/streams Recommendation Based on the information provided above, we recommend re-designating this bathing water as multiple bathing waters with sampling points at popular bather areas such as the University and in front of the main car park and beach facilities. It is a 9km stretch incorporating different communities, different facilities and different sewer overflows. It is also very popular with bathers and other water users. 12

13 Surfers Against Sewage recommendation to review the sampling point at Amroth Central Background Amroth Central is a 4km long sandy beach backed by a pebble bank and promenade. Low rocky cliffs flank the beach while its length is broken up by groynes. Amroth slopes relatively steeply before flattening out into the Bristol Channel. At low tide the shallow waters are some way from the back of the beach. The beach is situated in the Carmarthen Bay Special Area of Conservation and lies within Pembrokeshire Coast National Park. Facilities here include a couple of shops, a restaurant and café, parking and toilets. The beach is popular for swimming, jet skiing, windsurfing and fishing while three sewer outfalls and streams discharge across its length. Reasons for proposed change The sampling point for Amroth Central is located in the centre of the beach close to a CSO and river, however it is flanked by other sewer overflows. Approximately 400m to the west can be found a car park, shops, cafés restaurants and watersports hire, all located close to sewer overflow and stream discharge. The infrastructure and facilities around this area make it clear that it is a popular bather area as does the bus stop and beach information sign. 13

14 14

15 The sampling point is some way away from the main bather area Recommended sampling site at the most popular bather area CSOs and river mouths flank the sampling point. Recommendation Based on the information provided above, we would recommend that the sampling point be moved to the western end of the beach where the main infrastructure and bather area appears to be. 15

16 Surfers Against Sewage recommendation to review the sampling point at Broad Haven Central Background Next to Little Haven and joined at low tide, Broadhaven sits at the southern end of St Brides Bay and is a long sandy beach backed by high cliffs and the rural town of Broad Haven. The beach is also a Site of Special Scientific Interest part of the Pembrokeshire Marine Special Area of Conservation and lies within Pembrokeshire Coast National Park making it popular with nature lovers. Facilities are fairly limited with parking, toilets, shops, a café, windsurfing hire and a youth hostel. Swimming, bathing, sailing, kayaking, canoeing, kitesurfing, windsurfing, fishing and surfing all occur here. A sewer overflow discharges into a small stream in the centre of the beach while other discharges in the area may affect bathing water quality at Broadhaven Central. Reasons for proposed change While the sampling point is located in the middle of the beach, a river discharges some 250m to the north in front of a large car park, a beach access route and a lifeguard hut indicating that this is a main bather area. There is also a sewer overflow and another river several hundred metres to the south, again with a beach access route and car park. 16

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18 A river discharged across the beach close to a beach access route, lifeguard hut and car park. The recommended sampling point is much closer to the main bather area and beach infrastructure, with a large car park above it. The sampling point is located 250m to the south of a river and main bather area. Another sewer overflow discharges into a river at the southern end of the bathing water. Recommendation Based on the information provided above, we would recommend that either the beach be divided into two with separate sampling points at either end of the beach to correspond with the infrastructure at each location or that the sampling point be moved to the northern end of the beach where it would appear the main bather area is. 18

19 Surfers Against Sewage recommendation to review the sampling point at Aberporth Background Aberporth is a picturesque village overlooking a small, sandy beach that slopes gently to the sea. The beach is divided in two by a small headland creating two beaches as the tide pushes in. Rock pools are exposed at low tide, while the cliffs are popular with walkers. The waters surrounding the area are designated as the Cardigan Bay Special Area of Conservation. Plenty of facilities can be found in the village with toilets, shops, cafes, restaurants and parking available. Swimming, sailing, fishing, rock pooling, windsurfing and, occasionally surfing are all popular past times here. There are two small streams, one onto each beach into which numerous sewer overflows discharge. Another sewer overflow discharges across the headland to the east of the bay. Reasons for proposed change With separate beaches at high tide, separate beach access routes, separate car parks and separate sewer overflows it follows naturally that there will be separate bathing areas. This will be particularly true as the tide pushes which makes a very strong case for redesignating Aberporth as two bathing waters. The current sampling point is located in the centre of the western beach several hundred metres from the bather area and sewer overflow at the eastern beach. 19

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21 Another sewer overflow can be found just around the headland. The recommended move is to re-designate the beach as two bathing waters. The sampling point is located on the western beach Recommendation CSOs and streams surround the sampling point Based on the information provided above, we would recommend that the beach be redesignated as two separate bathing waters; East Beach and West Beach based on the separate facilities, sewer overflows and bather areas. 21

22 Surfers Against Sewage recommendation to review the sampling point at Clarach South Background Clarach South is a popular sand and shingle beach backed by two large holiday parks and divided by the River Clarach. Located in Cardigan Bay, Clarach is flanked by tall cliffs. Coastal walks are popular here with a nature trail linking it to Aberystwyth. Facilities are plentiful here with the holiday parks and restaurants, cafes, take-away, toilets, parking and shops can all be found here. Swimming, sailing, canoeing, kayaking, bathing, windsurfing and surfing are all common place here. A number of sewer overflows discharge upstream of the Afon Clarach which runs across the centre of the beach before meeting the sea. Reasons for proposed change Clarach is a long stretch of beach with two separate parts there are car parks, beach access routes, holiday parks and bather areas at the southern end and the northern end divided by the river into which a number of sewer overflows discharge upstream. 22

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24 With the separate beach access and holiday park, the recommendation is to re-designate this beach as two bathing waters. The Afon Clarach has a number of sewer overflows discharging into is upstream The present sampling point is towards the south of the beach, around 300m to the south of the river and sewer overflow. 24

25 Recommendation Based on the information provided above, we would recommend that the bathing water be re-designated as two separate bathing waters; North and South beach divided by the river. This is due to the infrastructure (car parks, toilets, holiday parks etc) at either end of the beach indicating that there are two separate bather areas. 25

26 Surfers Against Sewage recommendation to review the sampling point at Aberdyfi Background A steep, shelving beach at the mouth of the River Dyfi (Dovey), Aberdyfi is a sandy beach with a harbour at its eastern end located within Snowdonia National Park. The coastal waters have a list of designations in place; a RAMSAR site, Dyfi Estuary Special Protection Area, Llyn Peninsular and Sarnau Special Areas of Conservation and Dyfi Site of Special Scientific Interest. Toilets, cafes, restaurants, a pier, a promenade, parking and a slipway are all available here. A popular destination for sailing (numerous regattas are held here), boating, power boating, windsurfing, kayaking and canoeing, swimming and bathing. A sewer overflow in the centre of the town discharges into the River Dyfi. Reasons for proposed change The majority of the facilities large car park, tourist information centre, toilets, cafes, shops, small harbour, watersports clubs, the village of Aberdovey are all located at the eastern end of the beach several hundred metres downstream of a sewer overflow. Google maps supports our proposal, clearly showing the vast majority of bathers at the area closest to the car park and beach facilities (see below). The sampling spot is currently located approximately 600m to the west of this bathing spot. 26

27 27

28 Two CSOs discharge further upstream into this river which flows across the beach directly in front of a popular watersports spot. The sampling point, around 600m to the west of the main bather area The recommended sampling point is in the, by far, more popular bather area Recommendation Based on the information provided above, we would recommend that the sampling point be moved at least 500m to the east to bring it much closer to the main bather area and provide a more accurate sampling point, protecting the public from sewer overflows. 28

29 Surfers Against Sewage recommendation to review the sampling point at Colwyn Bay Background Located on the North Wales coast, Colwyn Bay is a long sandy beach set within a much larger bay. It is a popular Victorian seaside resort backed by a promenade and seafront walk and broken up by groynes along its length. Facilities are plentiful here with the resort close behind the beach. Shops, restaurants, cafes, pubs, hotels, nightclubs, bars, a harbour, leisure centre, arcades, toilets and parking can all be found here. Windsurfing, swimming, bathing, canoeing, kayaking, jet skiing and fishing are all activities that are commonly carried out here. A number of sewer overflows discharge along the length of the bathing water. Reasons for proposed change Due to the length of this bathing water, the number of sewer overflows that discharge along it and the infrastructure and facilities behind it is clear that there are a number of popular bather areas not correctly represented by the sampling point at the western extent of the beach. Pleasure Pier is also some distance from the sampling point and is a focal point for beach goers. 29

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31 Due to the length of the beach, the sampling point is quite a distance from popular bather areas and sewer overflows The recommended sampling point is closer to Pleasure Pier, another popular bathing spot. A number of sewer overflows discharge along the length of this bathing water. Recommendation Based on the information provided above, we would recommend that, due to the sheer size of the beach it be re-designated as several bathing waters with another sampling point close to Pleasure Pier in the middle of the beach. 31

32 Surfers Against Sewage recommendation to review the sampling point at Rhyl and Rhyl East Background A large, sandy, popular seaside resort, Rhyl has a large tidal range and slopes gently from the promenade to the low tide mark. Numerous cafes, shops, restaurants, kiosks, hotels and bars can be found along the promenade and in the town while toilets, parking, and deck chair hire are present at the beach. Sailing, jet skiing, wakeboarding, canoeing, kayaking, power boating, windsurfing, swimming and bathing are all common watersports here. Two sewer overflows discharge onto Rhyl beach, one to the east and one to the west into the Clwyd River. Rhyl East is essentially the same beach with the sampling points almost on the same transect. Reasons for proposed change Rhyl and Rhyl East are the same beach with the sampling points almost on the same transect (see images below). They are flanked by sewer overflows and, with the infrastructure and facilities behind the beach, it is clear that there are multiple bather areas. There is a large car park, cafes, shops, arcades and an amusement park at the western end of the town close to the mouth of the River Clwyd into which a number of sewer overflows discharge. A golf club and holiday park can be found at the eastern end of the beach also with their own facilities. 32

33 Rhyl Bathing Water: 33

34 Rhyl East Bathing Water 34

35 The two sampling points are in very close proximity. A number of CSOs discharge on either side of the sampling points. Recommendation The recommended outcome is that Rhyl is moved west and Rhyl east is moved further east. Based on the information provided above, we would recommend that both sampling points be moved to better represent the main bather areas of each bathing water. The sampling point for Rhyl should be moved further west, closer to the mouth of the river and to the main bathing area indicated by infrastructure and facilities backing the beach. We recommend that Rhyl East sampling point be moved further east, to the bather area indicated by the golf club and holiday camp and to ensure any impacts from the sewer overflow are accounted for. 35

36 References Environment Agency, 2014., Bathing Water Date Explorer [online] available at < Google, 2014 Maps [online] available at < 36

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