# SYMMETRY AND VARIABILITY OF VERTICAL GROUND REACTION FORCE AND CENTER OF PRESSURE IN ABLE-BODIED GAIT

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2 Y cop = PiAiYi PiAi where (X COP, Y COP ) is the istataeous positio of the COP, P i is the pressure measured by sesor i; A i is the area of sesor i; (X i, Y i ) is the positio of the ceter of sesor i; ad is the umber of sesors. The coordiate at the iitial cotact, mea coordiate, atero-posterior ad medio-lateral displacemet of coordiate, displacemet velocity of COP trajectory durig stace phase were measured by istataeous positios of COP (Figure ). To evaluate the COP path, COP data of each step were ormalized to 00 poits so that comparisos could be made i X, Y axle betwee steps. The coefficiet of variatio (CV) of each poit was the calculated ad averaged over the total stace time of each step for each subject. (2) Figure 2: Five distict regios were defied o the foot, based o the specific isole sesors show. (%) 80 Medial forefoot Arch Medial heel Lateral forefoot Lateral heel X Toe off Velocity of pre-swig Cotralateral Iitial cotact Velocity of termial stace Heel lift 0 Medial lateral displacemet % Body weight First peak force Secod peak force Velocity of mid-stace Mid-peak of low force Foot flat Velocity of Loadig respose Iitial cotact Aterior posterior displacemet % Stace phase a. Forces i the whole foot (%) Y Figure : Illustratios of ceter of pressure variables durig stace phase. For aalysig vertical groud reactio force (vgrf) distributio, the sole was divided ito five regios: medial heel, lateral heel, arch, medial forefoot ad lateral forefoot (Figure 2). The force of the whole foot (Figure 3a)ad the forces distributed i five areas (Figure 3b)were expressed as a percetage of dyamic body weight (mea support forces measured o-lie durig sigle support itervals). The absolute symmetry idex (ASI) was used for calculatig the asymmetry betwee the feet (Herzog et al, 989): (D N) ASI = 00 (3) 0.5 (D + N) where D ad N are the values of the gait variable measured for the domiat ad o-domiat foot, respectively. Whe ASI=0, the gait is symmetrical. A acceptable degree of symmetry for this type of parameter was cosidered to have a ASI of less tha 0% (Giakas et al. 997; White et al. 999). % Body weight (%) Forces i the lateral heel Forces i the medial heel Forces i the arch Forces i the lateral forefoot Forces i the medial forefoot (%) % Stace phase b. Forces of the five regios i the foot Figure 3: Illustratios of vertical groud reactio force variables used i this study. Coefficiet of variatio (CV) was used to determie the variability of the results, which was calculated as the mea stadard deviatio divided by the rage of the mea data value, multiplied by 00. stadard deviatio CV = 00 (4) mea A value for the CV of less tha 2.5% is usually cosidered a acceptable level of variability for experimetal data of this type (White et al. 999).

4 Table 4 Spatial parameters of ceter of pressure (COP) of the domiat ad o-domiat foot Domiat foot No-domiat foot ASI (mm) Mea (SD) C V Mea (SD) C V Mea (%) Iitial X-coordiate 42.6 (5.3) (3.8) Iitial Y-coordiate (.3) (.9) Mea X-coordiate 40.8 (4.6) 5.0* 40.9 (3.5) 7.* 7.5 Mea Y-coordiate 06.3 (9.5) (9.9) ML displacemet of COP 6.2 (2.3) 46.5* 6.3 (3.0) 67.3* 45.5 AP displacemet of COP 60.9 (3.7) (6.5) Stadard deviatio i X-coordiate 2.4 (0.8)* 6.0* 3.2 (.7)* 7.9* 36.5 Stadard deviatio i Y-coordiate 4.5 (.7) (.5) (*: P<0.05) Table 5 Vertical groud reactio forces o the whole foot ad o each of five distict regios durig gait Domiat foot No-domiat foot ASI Mea (SD) C V (%) Mea (SD) C V (%) Mea (%) Vertical groud reactio forces o the whole foot: First peak force 5.6 (4.) (3.9) Secod peak force 2.2 (0.7) (8.9) Mid-peak low force 78.6 (0.) (7.8) Vertical groud reactio forces o each of 5 regios: Peak force of lateral heel 40.5 (3.3) (.3) Peak force of medial heel 37.5 (4.) (.8) Peak force of arch 6.0 (5.6) (5.9) Peak force of lateral forefoot 56.4 (4.) 5.2* 54.6 (.3) 2.9* 2.5 Peak force of medial forefoot 67.6 (6.5) (7.8) (% Body weight) (*: P<0.05) The mea X, Y coordiates were calculated by averagig all coordiates durig the stace phase ad correspoded to the ceter of platar surface. There is o sigificat differece i mea X, Y coordiates betwee the domiat foot ad o-domiat oe. However, the CVs of the o-domiat foot are sigificatly greater tha that of the domiat foot. Durig the stace phase, atero-posterior (AP) ad medio-lateral (ML) displacemets of COP were 60.9±3.7, 6.2±2.3mm i the domiat foot ad 57.6±6.5, 6.3±3.0mm i the o-domiat foot, respectively. No statistically sigificat differeces were foud betwee the domiat ad o-domiat foot. The CVs of ML displacemet i the o-domiat foot were greater tha that of the domiat foot. The ASI of ML displacemet was greater tha 0%. I the X-coordiate of COP path, o-domiat foot showed greater variability. Both the mea stadard deviatio ad its CV i o-domiat foot were sigificatly greater tha that of the domiat foot. However, there is o sigificat differece o these parameters i the Y-coordiate of COP path. Vertical groud reactio force Vertical groud reactio forces i the whole foot ad i each of five distict regios durig gait are show i Table 5. The st peak force, 2d peak force ad mid-peak of the low force were 5.6 ±4., 2.2 ±0.7, 78.6 ±0.% of the body weight i the domiat foot ad 5.4±3.9, 2.±8.9, 76.2±7.8% of the body weight i the o-domiat foot, respectively. No statistically sigificat differeces were foud betwee the domiat ad o-domiat foot. The CVs of these parameters showed o differet betwee the feet. I additio, the ASI of them are lower tha 0%. These results are cosistet with the previous study (Giakas & Baltzopoulos, 997). There are o differeces i peak forces of each five distict regios betwee the domiat ad o-domiat foot. However, the peak forces i lateral forefoot showed greater CV i the o-domiat foot. The CVs of peak forces i the arch, lateral forefoot ad medial forefoot showed greater values tha acceptable level of variability (2.5%). The ASI of these parameters showed greater values tha 0% (Giakas & Baltzopoulos, 997). DISCUSSION Gait is a activity i which the movig body is supported successively by oe leg ad the other. Durig gait, the lower limbs support the body agaist gravity while geeratig movemets to propel the body forward. I recet studies, it

6 statistically sigificat. Cosiderig with the spatial parameters, the o-domiat foot has greater variability i the medio-lateral directio, especially i the timig of push-off. This also suggests that the o-domiat limb has a role of cotrollig forward progressio durig able-bodied gait. CONCLUSION From these results, atural fuctioal gait differeces were foud betwee domiat ad o-domiat foot. It was suggested that the domiat limb is to propel the body segmets forward while the o-domiat limb is to cotrol forward progressio durig able-bodied gait. REFERENCES Berstei NA (967). The Co-ordiatio ad Regulatio of Movemet. (st ed), Oxford: Pergamo Press. Cavaagh P.R. (978). J. Biomech., Devita P. et al (99). J. Biomech. 24(2): Giakas G, Baltzopoulos V (997). Gait & Posture 5: Hamill J. et al (984). Res. Q. 55: Ha, T.R. et al (999). Gait & Posture, 0: Herzog W. et al (989). Med. Sci. Sports Exer. 2():0-4. Hirasawa Y (98). Saiesu 6: Hirokawa S (989). J. Biomech. Eg. : Keeth JC. et al (2000). Gait & Posture 2: Matsusaka N. et al (985). I: D.A. Witer, R. Norma, R. Wells, PR., Hayes, K. Patla, A. (eds), Biomechaics IX-A, Champaig, IL: Huma Kietics. Nachsho I. Et al (983).. It. J. Neurosci. 8(-2): -9 Perry J (992). Gait Aalysis: Normal ad Pathological Fuctio, Slack Ic, Thorofare. Sadeghi H. et al (997). Hum. Mov. Sci. 6: Sadeghi H. et al (2000). Gait & Posture 2: Tai RH. et al (999). Gait & Posture 0: White R. et al (999). Cli. Biomech. 4(3): Witer JM, Crago PE (2000). Biomechaics ad Neural Cotrol of Posture ad Movemet. New York, NY: Spriger

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