Ocean Waves. Capillary. Gravity. Wind generated. Tides Tsunamis Seiches

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1 Ocean Waves Capillary Wind generated Gravity Tides Tsunamis Seiches

2 Capillary waves are driven by the surface tension produced by electrically polarized water molecule

3 San Pedro Lighthouse

4 Waves are alternate rises and falls, describable as simple/complex sinusoidals

5 Amplitude Crest Wave period or Wavelength Trough Amplitude Height

6 Waves are alternate rises and falls, describable as simple/complex sinusoidals only add-up, always i.e., wave interference can be constructive and/or destructive

7 1 0.5 A B C -1

8 A B C = A+B

9 1 0.5 B A C

10 Waves interference is always additive This is the algebraic sum of these

11 1 Wave interference can be constructive or destructive

12 1 0-1 Destructive Destructive interference interference Constructive Constructive Constructive interference interference interference

13 Waves are alternate rises and falls, describable as simple/complex sinusoidals only add-up, always i.e., wave interference can be constructive and/or destructive carry energy, not matter light is an exception, it travels in waves and as particles

14 Wave speed or velocity (cm/s) Capillary waves Gravity waves in deepwater, V 1.25 L Wavelength (cm)

15 Circular path: waves of oscillation Waves carry energy, not matter The orbital motion of representative water molecules: orbital size decreases with depth, with negligible water motion at depth ½ wavelength Elliptical path: waves of translation

16 Waves break on reaching the shore. Why?

17 Waves break as the succeeding waves catch up with preceding waves

18 Spilling breakers form when the bottom slopes gradually

19 Plunging or or surging breakers form when the the bottom slope is is steep

20 Three factors affect wind wave development: (a) Wind speed, (b) Wind duration, and (c) Fetch

21 Conditions conducive of a fully developed sea Wind Conditions Wind speed Fetch Wind duration Average height Wave Size Average Length Average period 19 km/hr (10 knots) 37 km/hr (20 knots) 56 km/hr (30 knots) 74 km/hr (40 knots) 92 km/hr (50 knots) 19 km 139 km 518 km 1313 km 2627 km 2 hr 10 hr 23 hr 42 hr 69 hr 0.27 m 1.5 m 4.1 m 8.5 m 14.8 m 8.5 m 33.8 m 76.5 m 136 m 212 m 3.0 sec 5.7 sec 8.6 sec 11.4 sec 14.3 sec

22 Wave energy versus wavelength for fully developed sea: Stronger winds generate waves that are both longer and more energetic, on average 75 km/hr Relative wave energy 55 km/hr 37 km/hr Wavelength (m)

23

24 Lunar Phases First Quarter Full Moon New Moon Third Quarter

25 Spring Tides occur when the lunar and solar gravitational pulls add up Full Moon New Moon

26 Third Quarter Neap Tides occur when lunar and solar gravitational First Quarter pulls are mutually perpendicular

27 Tides can be SPRING and NEAP, depending on the relative positions of Sun and Moon DIURNAL, SEMIDIURNAL or MIXED, depending on their daily cycles

28

29 1 Wave interference can be constructive or destructive

30 1 0-1 Destructive Destructive interference interference Constructive Constructive Constructive interference interference interference

31 1 0.5 B A C

32 Tides can be 1. Diurnal: or once daily 2. Semidiurnal or twice daily and 3. Mixed

33 Semidiurnal tides are more common than diurnal and mixed tides

34 The travel-path of the tsunami of April 1, 1946

35

36

37

38

39 Active oceancontinent margins should expect tsunamis more frequently than the passive ones

40 The map below shows the position of the leading wave of a tsunami generated by a 1979 earthquake offshore Colombia, South America*. These contours are for the tsunami arrival times in hours. *K. Ida & T. Iwasaki (Ed.): Tsunamis: Their Science and Engineering (D. Reidel, Boston MA, 1983)

41 Consider an earthquake with its epicenter at Honolulu, Hawaii. The corresponding tsunami travel times (in hours) from Hawaii are given in this map of 4 the Pacific 2 Ocean

42 Coasts can be active or passive erosional or depositional

43 Parts of a beach

44 Wave refraction along a straight coast

45 The gentler the beach slope, the finer the beach sediments tend to be, as can be seen from these profiles of the Half Moon Bay, California. Elevation (ft) Distance (ft)

46 Depth from sea-surface (m) Seawater temperature ( C) June September September March August May Thermocline at the Carmel November January Beach is seasonal...

47 Height above mean low water (m) and so is the beach profile. August April September July June February December May Distance from the sea cliff (m)

48 Seawater Temperature Depth Winter Summer Beach profile Winter Depth Summer Sea surface

49 Longshore current and littoral drift

50 hese two pictures of Sandy Beach (shown by cross here), New Jersey, were taken in 1940 left) and 1963 (right). Can we infer from these that N X X

51 How baymouth bars and spits form

52 ormation of a tambolo

53 Coastal straightening by wave-erosion

54 The development of a wave-cut platform

55

56

57 Deltas can be 1. tide-dominated, river dominated, and wave-dominated

58 Continental shelf, slope, and submarine canyon

59 A submarine canyon is a collapsed river channel

60 How construction modifies the shoreline: The constructing a groin or a pier, i.e., a structure perpendicular to the shoreline

61 How construction modifies the shoreline: Constructing a breakwater wall means sand pileup right behind the breakwater wall and erosion downstream

62 Santa Barbara Harbor

63

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