There are many different kinds of beaches which are generally characterized by the dominance of waves, tides, rivers and currents, and in particular

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1 Fig , p. 253

2 There are many different kinds of beaches which are generally characterized by the dominance of waves, tides, rivers and currents, and in particular differ by the amount of energy, which results in either Erosion or Deposition

3 High energy Erosion Fig. 11-4, p. 249

4 Low energy Deposition

5 Types of Coastlines

6 Sydney Harbor Australia A drowned river system Fig. 11-CO, p. 244

7 A fjord, Alaska Fig. 11-8, p. 251

8 Glacially eroded beach in Maine

9 An actively growing coastline, Hawaii Fig. 11-9, p. 251

10 A collapsed caldera Hawaii Fig , p. 252

11 A mangrove swamp Fig , p. 261

12 A Birdfoot Delta Fig a, p. 260

13 Ganges- Brahmaputra Delta Fig b, p. 260

14 Great Barrier Reef Australia Fig , p. 261

15 Coral reef coastline in Florida

16 Transitional: Reef & Lagoon

17 In 1990, 50% of the U.S. population lived within 75 km of a coast. By 2010, 75% of the U.S. population will live within 75 km of a coast.

18 What about changes in sea level? glacial/interglacial timescale Increase of ~120 meters

19

20 Fig. 11-2b, p. 247

21 Florida coast during the last glacial maximum Fig. 11-3a, p. 248

22 Florida coast after global warming Fig. 11-3b, p. 248

23 Tectonic uplift Marine Terraces

24 Marine Terraces California Fig , p. 265

25 Waves Fig. 9-CO, p. 198

26 Motion of water in a wave is circular Motion of energy of he wave is forward Fig. 9-1, p. 200

27 Fig. 9-2, p. 201

28

29 Waves are defined by their wavelength (L) Waves have are produced by a disturbing force and dissipated by a restoring force Table 9-1, p. 202

30 Waves may also be classified by defined by their frequency (f) Fig. 9-4, p. 202

31 Bigger waves move faster and tend to group together (dispersion) You will see the big waves from a storm first Fig. 9-8, p. 206

32 Biggest waves seen in the West Wind Drift Waves as tall as 36 ft are common Fig. 9-10, p. 207

33 Coastal Erosion Fig. 11-4, p. 249

34 Coastal Erosion Erosion is caused by the abrasive action of moving sand & gravel Tectonics, rock type & land surface processes contribute to shaping a coast Hydraulic pressure of breaking waves is a large contributor to mechanical erosion

35 Coastal Erosion Sea caves, arches, and stacks develop as refracted waves attack the coast Refracted waves focus energy on headland sides Zones of bedrock weakness allow preferential erosion Caves form, evolve into arches and stacks

36 Coastal Erosion Sea cliffs & wave-cut platforms Sea cliffs are produced by undercutting Cliff retreats over time as cliff face collapses Waves erode & remove debris Wave-cut platforms develop Flat surface commonly visible at low tide Widening platform protects cliff Beaches may develop on wide platforms

37 Fig. 11-5a, p. 250

38

39

40 Fig. 11-5b, p. 250

41 Fig. 11-5c, p. 250

42 Fig. 11-5d, p. 250

43

44 Wave Refraction Waves are bent as a portion slows Waves drag on the bottom & slow Shoreline is uneven, some deeper areas Wave is bent, becomes parallel to shore Wave energy is: concentrated on headlands dissipated in bays

45 Selective erosion of the headlands tends to straighten a coast

46 Highest point of the beach where waves reach at high tide Fig , p. 253

47 Backshore Windblown dunes, some vegetation Fig , p. 253

48 Foreshore Active zone of the beach Fig , p. 253

49 Longshore troughs and bars Below low tide; Formed by waves, backwash and longshore currents Fig , p. 253

50 Beaches are temporary and can change with the seasons Summertime beach Fig a, p. 254

51 Wintertime beach Fig b, p. 254

52 Calm conditions in the Spring and Summer build up sand on the beach Spring Summer Wintertime storms remove sand from the beach and deposit offshore Winter Fig c, p. 254

53 Coastal Deposition Shoreline systems receive sediment from a variety of sources

54 Coastal Deposition Shoreline systems receive sediment from a variety of sources Much is land derived, river transported

55 Coastal Deposition Shoreline systems receive sediment from a variety of sources Much is land derived, river transported Moved by longshore drift

56 Coastal Deposition Shoreline systems receive sediment from a variety of sources Much is land derived, river transported Moved by longshore drift Deposited in low energy areas

57 Coastal Deposition Shoreline systems receive sediment from a variety of sources Much is land derived, river transported Moved by longshore drift Deposited in low energy areas Shell and coral debris is common in tropical regions

58 Coastal Deposition Beaches Shore built of unconsolidated sediments, usually sand sized particles Shape & size of beach dependent on wave energy Beach slope is often a function of particle size, coarser = steeper beach face

59 Longshore Drift One of the most important shoreline processes Occurs when waves hit the shore at angles other than 90 o Breakers push material up the beach at an angle Backwash pulls material down perpendicular to shore

60 Geometry of longshore drift

61 Longshore Drift Repetition of this process moves material parallel to beach face Beach drift & longshore currents are generated creating longshore drift Large volumes of sand may move Rip currents may develop if large volumes of water accumulate onshore

62 Geometry of longshore drift

63 Fig , p. 258

64 Fig , p. 255

65 Fig a, p. 256

66 Fig b, p. 256

67 Fig , p. 268

68 Fig. 4-11, p. 86

69 Coastal Deposition Spits Form by longshore drift of sediment Extend across mouth of bays & estuaries Tombolos Outward built beach connecting to an island Island refracts waves away from beach

70 Longshore drift creates spits

71 Spits can create more beach

72 Coastal Deposition Barrier islands Offshore islands parallel to shoreline Common on gently sloping coasts Separated from mainland by a lagoon Islands may migrate by Longshore drift parallel to coast Toward/away from the coast by sea level change

73 Barrier Islands and Bay Mouth Bars Fig , p. 257

74 Barrier islands Bay Mouth Bars Fig , p. 257

75 Transitional: Barrier Islands

76 Barrier islands

77 Barrier Islands Cape Hatteras Fig , p. 258

78 Cape Hatteras and the Chesapeake Bay Fig. 11-7, p. 251

79 Barrier Islands change rapidly Fig , p. 258

80 Barrier Islands

81 Barrier Islands

82 Barrier Islands Ocean City, MD Fig c, p. 259

83 Fig , p. 259

84 Fig , p. 267

85 Fig , p. 268

86 Estuaries Fig , p. 262

87 Fig. 9-24, p. 218

88 Fig. 9-25, p. 219

89 Fig. 9-26, p. 220

90 Fig. 9-27, p. 221

91 Fig. 9-29b, p. 222

92 Fig. 9-29c, p. 222

93 IG4e_18_23 The Effect of the Wind on Land

94 IG4e_18_25

95 IG4e_18_26a

96

97 IG4e_18_22

98 Aeolian River Crossbedding in rivers and deserts (aeolian)

99 Cross Beds Zion National Park, UT

100

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