Montessori for Everyone 2013 Types of Coastlines

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1 Coast The coast is the part of the land that borders the sea. It is subject to constant change, as the result of the waves and deposits carried by water onto the land. Coastline The coastline is where the land and the sea merge. Because the actual line changes with the tides, some scientists refer to this area as a coastal zone. Regular Coastline Regular coastlines have a smooth outline with few to no natural harbors. If there are mountains inland, the regular coast usually runs parallel to them. Irregular Coastline A coast is irregular when the line of the land is uneven, containing many natural harbors. The harbors enable trade, and can help a country thrive. Please note: These are not 3-part cards and are not meant to be. They are information cards. When you cut them apart, cut only on the black lines. Do not cut apart the picture, name, and definition. Please see the instructions at the end for how they are to be used.

2 High Coastline The coast is described as high when the land descends vertically to the sea. It can be regular (smooth) or irregular, with many harbors and bays. Low Coastline The coast is described as low when the land gradually descends to the sea. It can be regular (smooth), or irregular, with many harbors or bays. Emergent Coastline Emergent coastlines are exposed to the sea due to falling sea levels, caused by shifting tectonic plates of the Earth, or a global change in sea level. Submergent Coastline When the sea level rises because of shifting tectonic plates of the Earth or a global change in sea levels, the resulting coast is a submergent coastline.

3 Low Sandy Coastline A coastline whose land descends gradually to the sea, and is made mostly of sand, is called a low sandy coastline. Low Rocky Coastline A low rocky coastline is a made mostly of rocks and rocky matter and descends gradually to the sea. Promontory A promontory is an irregular coastline of emergence. A mountainous point of land that protrudes into the sea, it is usually high with a sheer drop and rocky cliffs. Peninsula A peninsula (or headland) is an irregular coastline of emergence. It is a large stretch of land surrounded by water on almost all sides.

4 Cape A cape is an irregular coastline of emergence, consisting of land surrounded by water. It is larger than a point but not as large as a peninsula. Point A point is an irregular coastline of emergence, consisting of tapering land that projects into the water. It is often formed by the deposit of silt by ocean currents. Spit A low-lying narrow piece of land projecting into the sea, usually at the entrance to a bay, is called a spit. It is an irregular coastline of emergence. Isthmus A piece of land that connects two other pieces of land is called an isthmus. It is an irregular coastline of emergence.

5 Gulf A gulf is part of an irregular coastline of submergence. It is a very large area of water partially surrounded by land. It is larger than a bay. Fiord (Fjord) A fiord (fjord) is an irregular coastline of submergence. It is a long, deep, narrow inlet of the sea often bordered by steep cliffs. It is carved by a glacier. Bay A bay is part of an irregular coastline of submergence. It is an indentation in a sea or lake where water is surrounded by land. It is not as big as a gulf. Cove A cove is a small bay or inlet, consisting of water that indents into the land. It is part of an irregular coastline of submergence, and is often circular or oval.

6 Harbor A harbor is an irregular coastline of submergence. It is a small bay or other sheltered part of a larger body of water, deep enough for ships to anchor. Ria A ria is a kind of irregular coastline of submergence. Rias occur when the sea level rises near a valley, flooding it. A ria is also called a drowned river valley. Strait A strait is an irregular coastline of submergence. It is a narrow stretch of water which connects two larger bodies of water.

7 Types of Coastlines Coast Coastline Low Coastline High Coastline Regular Coastline Irregular Coastline Low Irregular Coastline* Low Regular Coastline* Low Sandy Coastline Low Rocky Coastline High Irregular Coastline* High Regular Coastline* Submergent Coastline: Gulf Fiord/Fjord Bay Cove Harbor Ria Strait Emergent Coastline: Peninsula Promontory Cape Point Spit Isthmus *These types are mentioned in the definitions but are not individually pictured. Montessori for Everyone 2013 Types of Coastlines Control Chart

8 Instructions Instructions for making this item: print on cardstock, laminate, and cut cards apart. There were two reasons why we did not make these cards in the traditional 3-part card style: 1. The cards have a hierarchy some of them represent larger categories while others fall under those categories. It s hard to arrange them correctly by hierarchy when they are 3-part cards. 2. Many of the coastlines look extremely similar, making it difficult to match the name and definition to the picture. When students work with this material, have them read the name and definition on each card and place it on a rug, roughly following the outline on the control chart. This lets them see which coastlines are subtypes of other types. These cards are for 9-12 year olds who have already completed basic Geography work (Land and Water Forms, Advanced Land and Water Forms, Parts of a River, Mountain, and Volcano, as well as studies of countries and continents). The study of Types of Coastlines is part of the horizontal configuration of the Earth, as opposed to the vertical configuration (layers of the Earth, layers of the Earth s surface, layers of the atmosphere). There are other features that occur at coastlines that are not types of coastlines but are related. An interested student might want to study them. Here are a few suggestions: lagoon sea caves jetty stack channel stump salt marsh delta canal estuary dunes shoal beach Our Geographic Features Research Guides (found in the Research Guide section of our store/cd) has a research guide for studying coastlines which would be a nice companion to these cards.

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