The future of city streets: NACTO Urban Street Design Guide. November 19, 2013

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1 The future of city streets: NACTO Urban Street Design Guide November 19, 2013 November 19, 2013

2 State Smart Transportation Initiative Practical Solutions to Move America Forward. A network of reform-oriented state DOTs, founded in 2010 and housed at the University of Wisconsin. Executive-level Community of Practice Technical assistance Resource for the transportation community November 19, 2013 The future of city streets: NACTO Urban Street Design Guide 2

3 Urban Street Design Guide The Future of City Streets Tuesday, November 19, 2013

4 Agenda Background and Driving Principles David Vega-Barachowitz, NACTO Interim Design Strategies Michael Flynn, NYC DOT Design Controls Peter Koonce, Portland

5 Background

6 Published March 2011 Second Edition Fall 2012 Published September 2013

7

8

9 Boston Complete Streets Guidelines, 2012 New York City Street Design Manual, 2 nd Ed. 2013

10

11

12

13

14 Urban Bikeway Design Guide

15

16

17

18

19

20

21 The Urban Street Design Guide

22 Downtown 1-Way Street Downtown 2-Way Street Downtown Thoroughfare Neighborhood Main Street Neighborhood Street Yield Street Boulevard Residential Boulevard Transit Corridor Green Alley Commercial Alley Residential Shared Street Commercial Shared Street

23 Lane Width Sidewalks Curb Extensions Gateway Pinchpoint Chicane Bus Bulbs Vertical Speed Control Elements Speed Hump Speed Table Speed Cushion Transit Streets Dedicated Curbside/Offset Bus Lanes Dedicated Median Bus Lanes Contra-Flow Bus Lanes Bus Stops Stormwater Management Bioswales Flow-Through Planters Pervious Strips Pervious Pavement

24 Moving the curb Parklets Temporary Street Closures Interim Public Plazas

25 Principles Major Intersections Intersections of Major and Minor Streets Raised Intersections Mini Roundabout Complex Intersections

26 Crosswalks and Crossings Crosswalks Conventional Crosswalks Midblock Crosswalks Pedestrian Safety Islands Corner Radii Visibility/Sight Distance Traffic Signals Signalization Principles Leading Pedestrian Interval Split-Phasing Signal Cycle Lengths Fixed vs. Actuated Signalization Coordinated Signal Timing

27 Design Speed Design Vehicle Design Hour Design Year Performance Measures Functional Classification

28

29

30 NACTO.ORG/USDG

31

32

33

34 Shared Streets

35

36

37 Public Plazas: Before

38 Public Plazas: After

39

40 Parklets

41

42 Levels of Guidance Critical Recommended Optional

43 Streets Are Public Spaces Great Streets are Great for Businesses Streets Can Be Changed Design for Safety Streets are Ecosystems Act Now!

44 Streets Are Public Spaces University City District

45 Great Streets are Great for Business NYC DOT

46 Streets can be Changed City of Atlanta

47 Design for Safety Nelson\Nygaard

48 Streets are Ecosystems

49 Act Now!

50 Existing

51 Interim

52 Reconstruction

53 Street Design in Context

54 Street Design in Context

55 Street Design in Context

56 Using the Guide: The Next Steps

57

58

59 THANK YOU

60 Island Press Promo Code 4NACTO 20% Off Also available for sale at select retailers, including Amazon, Barnes and Noble, and Powells.

61 Interim Design Strategies

62 Act Now! Implementing projects quickly using low-cost materials helps inform public decision making. Cities across the U.S. have begun using a phased approach to major redesigns, where interim materials are used in the short term and later replaced by permanent materials once funding is available and the public has tested the design thoroughly.

63 Typical Challenges for Long-Term Projects Funding Support from Public & Businesses Support from Elected Officials Design Approvals Environmental Approvals

64 Implementation Options Short-Term Signs Signals Roadway Markings Long-Term Construction

65

66 Interim Treatments Signs Signals Roadway Markings Planters & Trees Tables, Benches & Chairs

67

68 Interim Treatments Signs Signals Roadway Markings Planters & Trees Tables, Benches & Chairs Colored Lanes (bike/bus) Surface Treatments (epoxied gravel; paint) Stones/Boulders Superficial Construction (islands, etc)

69

70 Interim Treatments Signs Signals Roadway Markings Planters & Trees Tables, Benches & Chairs Colored Lanes (bike/bus) Surface Treatments (epoxied gravel; paint) Stones/Boulders Superficial Construction (islands, etc) Programming & Events Part-Time Closures Flexible Parking Lane

71 Implementation Options Interim Quick: Months Low-Cost: $00,000s Fewer Approvals Limited Design Options Short/Medium-Term Impact Construction Slow: Years Costly: $000,000s+ More Approvals Unlimited Design Options Long-Term Impact

72 Benefits of Interim Implementation Quickly reallocate space and deliver results (safety, placemaking, retail traffic, etc.) Establish a precedent prove the design works Build public and political support Allow time to put together funding

73 EVENTUALLY YOU NEED TO MAKE THINGS PERMANENT.

74 EVENTUALLY YOU NEED TO MAKE THINGS PERMANENT.

75 2-Phased Implementation

76 EXISTING CONDITIONS

77 INTERIM REDESIGN

78 RECONSTRUCTION

79 Interim Design Strategies Moving the Curb Parklets Temporary Street Closures Interim Public Plazas

80 Moving the Curb Interim Sidewalk Widening

81 Moving the Curb Interim Sidewalk Widening

82 Traffic Calming Moving the Curb

83 Traffic Calming Moving the Curb

84 Bike Corrals Moving the Curb

85 Bike Corrals Moving the Curb

86 Bike Share Moving the Curb

87 Bike Share Moving the Curb

88 Parklets

89 Parklets

90 Parklets

91 Parklets

92 Temporary Street Closures

93 Play Street Temporary Street Closures

94 Play Street Temporary Street Closures

95 Temporary Street Closures Pedestrian Street

96 Temporary Street Closures Pedestrian Street

97 Market Temporary Street Closures

98 Temporary Street Closures Open Streets

99 Temporary Street Closures Open Streets

100 Temporary Street Closures Open Streets

101 Temporary Street Closures Open Streets

102 Interim Public Plazas

103 Interim Public Plazas

104 Interim Public Plazas

105 Interim Public Plazas

106 Interim Public Plazas

107 Interim Public Plazas NYC Plaza Program From Roberto Clemente Plaza Community Design Charrette

108 Interim Public Plazas NYC Plaza Program Prioritizes High-Need Areas Blue Existing plaza project Red Lack of Open Space Yellow Low-Mod Income Orange Lack of Open Space & Low-Mod Income

109 Interim Public Plazas NYC Plaza Program Selection Criteria Lack of Open Space Demonstrated Community Initiative Supportive Site Context Community Org. Capacity Low- or Moderate-Income Neighborhood

110 Interim Public Plazas NYC Plaza Program Public Outreach & Design Charrettes

111 Interim Public Plazas NYC Plaza Program Maintenance Partner Outreach Design Maintenance Sweeping/Litter removal Trash bagging & removal Snow & Ice removal Graffiti removal Paving repair/replacement Cleaning furniture Repairing/repainting furniture Pest control Horticulture (planting/watering) Insurance/Indemnity Programming & Events Funding Plan Design Engineering City Permanent Art Construction Site Inspection

112 Interim Public Plazas NYC Plaza Program Partner Funding Sources Sub-Concessions (food, etc) Limited Sponsorships Commercial Events

113 More than Just Creating the Space Community partnership is key: Activating the space programming & events Creating a year-round destination Maintenance and sense of ownership Connected to (and reflective of) community

114 Design Controls

115 Design Speed Design Vehicle Design Hour Design Year Performance Measures Functional Classification

116 High-quality design for city streets and intersections relies on a keen understanding of the analytical processes and assumptions underlying those technical decisions that shape streets.

117 Design Controls should work towards your intended outcome, not against it.

118 Design Hour

119 Common practice: Study the peak 15 minutes of traffic using the Highway Capacity Manual

120 Peak Hour Design in urban design, the 30 th highest hourly volume can be a reasonable representation of daily peak hour the use of average hourly traffic would result in an inadequate design AASHTO 2.3.2

121 NACTO Recommends Assess more than the peak hour or 15-mins Identify peak spreading opportunities

122 Design for Hours, not Minutes

123 Design Hour Objective Streets designed for peak intervals of traffic may fail to provide a safe and attractive environment during other portions of the day.

124 From 8 AM to 8 PM 8:00 AM Mobility 12:00 PM Accessibility focus pedestrians during the lunch hour 8:00 PM Neighborhood emphasis bicycle and other local traffic

125 Design Year

126 Projection of Future Traffic Demands Many highway engineers believe the maximum design period is in the range of 15 to 25 years

127 Design Year vs. Actual Trend

128 Problems with Design Year Unconstrained vehicle demand for 20+ years Straight line growth projection Underlying goals of congestion reduction and highway project selection

129 Design Year Excess Space

130 Design Year under the Climate Lens Greenhouse Gas targets result in mode split goals Plan identifies policies and actions to meet objectives

131 Climate Action Plan Policy

132 Performance Measures

133 Performance Measures: Definition of Failure Skagit River Bridge

134 Potential Performance Measures Delay per vehicle Crashes per mile of highway Mode split

135

136 Performance Measures: Mode Split Targets

137 Highway Capacity Manual Highway Capacity Manual defines failure as the breakdown of flow; the threshold where you reach failure at signalized intersections 80 second per vehicle

138 Commentary on the Highway Capacity Manual Pedestrians are modeled as impediments to traffic, impacting flow Pedestrian perspective delay is not considered in the performance measure Practice of eliminating crosswalks is a result of insensitivity to importance of this mode

139 Level of Service at Signalized Intersections Today s methodology doesn t consider person delay or other goals Transit, pedestrian crossing, or bikes are largely forgotten in these traditional methodologies/ measures. Vehicle standards do not accept 80 seconds of delay per vehicle No procedure to consider >80 seconds of delay for pedestrians

140 USDG: Performance Measures by Mode

141 Measuring the Street Safety o Reduce crashes Places o Reduce speeding o Increased vitality o Public sentiment 142

142 Network instead of Point Analysis Fails to consider completeness of the system Point-level focus Limited tools for engineers to make improvements

143 Applying the USDG Challenge assumptions Engineering details Planning forecasts Use policies to trump traditional practices Take responsibility for the details

144 Thank you for your Time Peter Koonce, P.E. City of Portland pkoonce

145 Thank you! A recording of this webinar will be on the SSTI website later today. To find out about future SSTI webinars, subscribe to our newsletter and follow us on Twitter. November 19, 2013 The future of city streets: NACTO Urban Street Design Guide 146

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