How to Develop a Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

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1 How to Develop a Pedestrian Safety Action Plan Course Introduction Presented by: Peter Eun FHWA RC Safety Engineer Ryan Snyder President, Ryan Snyder Associates, LLC Paul Zykofsky Director, Land Use and Transportation Programs, Local Government Commission April 26, 2011

2 Outcomes At the end of this series, you will be able to: Develop and implement a Pedestrian Safety Action Plan addressing your specific issues, problems, needs and resources Describe how pedestrians should be considered and provided for during the planning, design, work zone, maintenance, and operations phases. Describe how human behavior affects the interaction between pedestrians and drivers Identify good practices and effective solutions to enhance pedestrian safety and accessibility. 1-2

3 Series Overview The Big Picture The Why and Planning Factors Stakeholders Data Collection Data Analysis Enforcement Programs and Strategies Education Programs and Strategies Engineering Programs and Strategies Funding Policy Discussion: What potential policies and procedures are need to further enhance pedestrian safety and accessibility 1-3

4 Overview of Pedestrian Safety Problem Annually almost 5,000 pedestrians are killed in traffic crashes, representing about 12% of all traffic deaths. Nearly 70,000 pedestrians are injured each year Most crashes occur when the pedestrian crosses a road Most fatalities and serious injuries occur on roads designed with little attention for pedestrian safety. Pedestrians are rarely killed in walkable environments. 1-4

5 Pedestrian Fatalities by Year 1-5

6 Pedestrian Injuries by Year 1-6

7 Why is it important to accommodate pedestrian safety and accessibility? Because we are all pedestrians 1-8

8 Why? Because many people do not drive 1-9

9 Why? Because other modes depend on walking 1-10

10 Why? Because it s good for business people walk into stores 1-11

11 Why? Because pedestrians use and belong on streets and highways 1-12

12 Why? Because it s a healthy exercise 1-13

13 Why? Because it will make roads safer for all road users 1-14

14 Why? AASHTO: Because of the demands of vehicular traffic in congested areas, it is often extremely difficult to make adequate provisions for pedestrians. Yet this must be done, because pedestrians are the lifeblood of our urban areas (1994 edition, page 97) 1-15

15 Why? US Congressional Legislation/Policy of US DOT TEA-21 (1999): The non-motorized modes are an integral part of the mission of FHWA and a critical element of the local, regional, and national transportation system. mainstream bicycle and pedestrian projects into planning, design, and operation... bicycling and walking facilities will be incorporated into all transportation projects unless exceptional circumstances exist. Because it s the LAW!!! 1-16

16 Resources PBIC: FHWA: safety.fhwa.dot.gov NHTSA: nhtsa.dot.gov ITE: AASHTO/NCHRP: safety.transportation.org 1-17

17 Planning and street design elements that affect pedestrian safety: Land use Street connectivity Access management Site design Level of Service 1-18

18 Land Use 1-19

19 Why do we have cities? To minimize travel & maximize exchange (to be closer together) 1-20

20 How have we built our urban roadway system? To facilitate travel over longer distances 1-21

21 Reducing travel demand is best achieved changing Land Use policies that bring destinations closer together The problem: Commercial activities concentrated in auto-dominated corridors. School Segregated land uses Result: long travel distances, not conducive to walking 1-22

22 Reducing travel demand is best achieved changing Land Use policies that bring destinations closer together The problem: Commercial activities concentrated in auto-dominated corridors. Segregated land uses School Result: long travel distances, not conducive to walking Potential solutions? Allow small-scale retail in neighborhoods Create neighborhood parks Site school closer to residences & parks 1-23

23 Neo-traditional development: destinations are close to residential areas 1-24

24 Street Connectivity 1-25

25 <- 1 mile square -> <- 1 mile square -> 3 left turns! Connected Streets Lollipop pattern Connectivity creates a pedestrian-friendly street system by: Reducing walking distances; Offering more route choices, more quiet local streets; Dispersing traffic reducing reliance on arterials for all trips 1-26

26 Discussion Can you increase connectivity with paths, greenways? Reduces walking distances: YES Offers more route choices: YES Disperses traffic: NO <- 1 mile square -> Lollipop pattern 1-27

27 High Connectivity Travel Lanes Required Moderate Connectivity Low Connectivity 1-28

28 Lack of connectivity => few but large intersections 1-29

29 You live here, your child wants to visit a friend who lives not far away; how do you get there? Cul-de-sac patterns increase walking distances & increase reliance on arterials 1-30

30 You live here, your child wants to visit a friend who lives not far away; how do you get there? Cul-de-sac patterns increase walking distances & increase reliance on arterials 1-31

31 Land Use & Connectivity Schools next to parks. Dedicate R.O.W. to link cul-de-sacs with linear parks 1-32

32 Access Management Every driveway is a potential conflict 1-33

33 Drivers and pedestrians must make choices: Walk in front or in back? Pull forward or back up? 1-34

34 Access Management => fewer conflicts at driveways 2 techniques: (1) median (no left turns) (2) consolidate driveways (1) (2) 1-35

35 Which has greater crash reduction factor: (1) (2) (1) Median (no left turns) or (2) consolidate driveways? 1-36

36 Severing public streets not a desirable access management technique This limits people s ability to walk or bicycle 1-37

37 Connecting severed streets reestablishes walking routes 1-38

38 Severed street can be reconnected for pedestrians 1-39

39 Site Design 1-40

40 Bringing Buildings closer to the Street Creates a street where drivers know to expect pedestrians 1-41

41 Parking between sidewalk and building is not pedestrian-friendly 1-42

42 Building at back of walk: pedestrian-oriented design 1-43

43 Fast food typically favors drive-thru over walk-ins Pedestrians must cross drive-thru lane 1-44

44 Alternative design: Direct pedestrian access is provided with no vehicular conflicts 1-45

45 Parking and drive through are still provided 1-46

46 Cars enter back here Even a gas station / convenience store can be built with pedestrian friendly design at back of walk 1-47

47 Accessible Parking Space Store Ped Way Landscape Bulbout Sidewalk Pedway retrofitted from sidewalk to building through parking 1-48

48 Same principles apply to large-scale developments: Direct, safe & convenient access is provided 1-49

49 So desperate for parking, they cut down tree! Poor Design: Drivers use sidewalk for backing 1-50

50 Rethinking The Role of Urban Streets 1-51

51 A complete street accommodates many uses and provides for all purposes of a street: Mobility (all modes) Access to destinations Thriving businesses Beauty 1-52

52 Transforming a street 1-53

53 Narrow lanes; add bike lanes, median, trees, texture 1-54

54 Bring in buildings that face the street 1-55

55 More buildings: Infill 1-56

56 The street now has a life and is safer for pedestrians 1-57

57 These goals are achieved by local ordinances, which must be enforced. They are beyond the scope of road designers, yet contribute greatly to the safety, comfort and aesthetics of the walking experience. Do your local ordinances support pedestrian-oriented planning and design? 1-58

58 The impact of Level of Service (LOS) standards on street design and pedestrian safety 1-59

59 HCM says LOS = A; little traffic, no impediments Result: very wide roads that reduce pedestrian safety 1-60

60 A new ped LOS is needed to reflect quality of walking experience HCM says ped LOS = A; few people walking 1-61

61 A new ped LOS is needed to reflect quality of walking experience HCM says ped LOS = F; too many peds! 1-62

62 Why are pedestrians at high risk on this street? Multi-lane roadway, high speeds 1-63

63 Why are pedestrians are at low risk on this street? Narrow roadway, low speeds, busy 1-64

64 What is the core safety issue? Pedestrians and drivers must use the streets together 1-65

65 What does the driver see that says slow down, watch for pedestrians? On-street parking Narrow cross-section Buildings close to street Sidewalks Crosswalk People! 1-66

66 Reinventing the roadway: Transform a 5-lane commercial strip to 1-67

67 a safer road for everyone Discussion 1: What changed? Discussion 2: What didn t change? 1-68

68 Let s Recap Why is it important to accommodate pedestrian safety and accessibility? How does the street environment influence drivers and pedestrians expectations and interactions? Where is the information? What planning factors influence pedestrian safety and accessibility? 1-69

69 Questions 1-70

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