A Preliminary Review of Beach Profile and Hardbottom Interactions

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1 A Preliminary Review of Beach Profile and Hardbottom Interactions Douglas W. Mann, P.E., D.CE. CB&I A World of Solutions

2 Presentation Goal Lead to a better understanding of the challenges regarding the estimation of sediment transport in the vicinity of hardbottom resources Review the basic understanding of typical beach profiles Review some tools to describe beach profile behavior during wave events Review some information regarding wave transformation over obstacles A World of Solutions 1

3 Introduction A World of Solutions 2

4 Offshore Beach Profiles Dean (1977) Reviewed 502 beach profiles on the U.S. east coast Y= A x 2/3 where Y is the water depth, X is the distance offshore, and A is a coefficient with units of Length 1/3 Balance between gravitational forces and onshore directed wave forces A World of Solutions 3

5 Offshore Beach Profiles Moore (1982) determined that coefficient A is a function of the mean grain size. Larger grain size yields larger A values and steeper beaches. A World of Solutions 4

6 Depth (feet) Select Offshore Profiles 0 Typical Offshore Beach Profiles (after Dean, 1977) Distance Offshore (feet) 'd=0.20 mm' 'd=0.40 mm' A World of Solutions 5

7 Valid Range of Coefficient A Jaspar Beach, ME Chenier Ronquille, LA A World of Solutions 6

8 Offshore Beach Profiles Munoz-Perez et al. (1999) evaluated A values landward of coral reefs in Spain and found that profiles with reefs had a greater A value (steeper profiles) than that predicted by grain size alone. Munoz-Perez, J., et al., Equilibrium Profile for Reef-Protected Beaches, JCR, Vol 15, No. 4, pg , A World of Solutions 7

9 Depth of Closure, after Hallermeier (1981) Depth of closure is a depth where there is no net sediment transport during a particular time frame D oc = 2.28H s -68.5( H s2 /gt 2 ; ), relative to MLW H s is the significant wave that occurs for 12 hours per year Hallermeier, R. J. (1981). A profile zonation for seasonal sand beaches from wave climate, Coastal Engineering 4, A World of Solutions 8

10 Depth of Closure, after Houston (1995) Alternatively, D oc =8.9 H s, MLW H s = mean annual significant wave. Houston, J. R. (1995). Beach-fill volume required to produce specified dry beach width, Coastal Engineering Technical Note 11-32, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. A World of Solutions 9

11 Depth (feet) Typical Offshore Profiles and Example Depth of Closure 0 Typical Offshore Beach Profiles Distance Offshore (feet) 'd=0.20 mm' 'd=0.40 mm' A World of Solutions 10

12 Depth (feet) Illustrative Example No. 1 0 Typical Offshore Beach Profiles Distance Offshore (feet) 'd=0.20 mm' 'd=0.40 mm' A World of Solutions 11

13 Depth (feet) Illustrative Example No 2. 0 Typical Offshore Beach Profiles If the hardbottom is landward of the depth of closure, then From the D oc definition, there is a probability of sediment transport which may bury some of the hardbottom under wave action. AND Distance Offshore (feet) From the equilibrium force 'd=0.20 balance, mm' there 'd=0.40 mm' is a probability that the net onshore wave forces which will clean the hardbottom. A World of Solutions 12

14 Engineering Tool Storm Induced Beach Change (SBEACH) developed by Larson, Kraus and Byrnes (1990) Waves, initial beach profile SBEACH, an empirical cross shore sediment transport model Final beach profile Larson, M, Kraus,N., and Byrnes,M. SBEACH: Numerical Model for Simulating Storm-Induced Beach change, Report 2 Numerical formulation and Model Tests, Technical Report CERC89-9, May A World of Solutions 13

15 SBEACH Goal A World of Solutions 14

16 1. Do the wave conditions indicate the profile should erode? H o /L o > (H o /wt) 3 Cross Shore Beach Performance 3/2/ A World of Solutions 15

17 Cross Shore Sediment Transport 2. What is the magnitude and spatial limits of the sediment transport? Wave Height Water Depth Larson, (1989) A World of Solutions 16

18 Transport relative to Transport at Breakpoint Determination of Offshore Transport Limits 1.00 Relative transport decay seaward of the breakpoint Distance Seaward of the Breakpoint (meters) Offshore Transport Onshore Transport A World of Solutions 17

19 SBEACH Results Therefore, if we know the wave conditions, the profile shape, and the sediment size, we can calculate: the magnitude, direction, and cross shore spatial limits of the sediment transport. Determine the likelihood of impacts to hardbottom. A World of Solutions 18

20 Wave Transformation over Obstacles A World of Solutions 19

21 Schematic Wave Obstacle Interaction A World of Solutions 20

22 Elevation( Ft NAVD) Profile with Multiple Hardbottom Ridges Distance from Monument (Ft) A World of Solutions 21

23 Wave Science Grilli and Horrillo (1999) investigated wave propagation and decay over submerged obstacles. They found: For steep waves, the increase in depth (inshore) results in highly nonlinear wave decomposition Fully nonlinear wave theory is required to estimate wave heights over and beyond the obstacles Grilli, S. and Horrillo, J., Shoaling of Periodic Waves over Barred Beaches in a Fully Nonlinear Numerical Wave Tank, International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering, Vol 9 (4), Pg , A World of Solutions 22

24 Which means.. The prediction of wave properties (height, orbital velocities, etc.) at the inshore edge of hardbottoms is complex. Wave Transformation over Obstacles Predicting erosion or deposition of sand at the edges of hardbottom resources is challenging. A World of Solutions 23

25 Nearshore hardbottom resources located landward of the depth of closure Are susceptible to burial Conclusions of this Preliminary Review Are subject to onshore sediment transport resulting in self cleaning forces Using cross shore models, such as SBEACH, for prediction of offshore sediment transport limits Results in finite transports seaward of the wave breaking depth Suggests onshore sediment transport occurs from distances further offshore than offshore transport for a given wave height A World of Solutions 24

26 Conclusions of this Preliminary Review Estimation of wave properties after propagating over obstacles (hardbottom) requires nonlinear wave theory. A World of Solutions 25

27 Looking Forward A complete review of the science is recommended. Interactions between beach profiles and hardbottoms should be reflect a scientific perspective. A World of Solutions 26

28 Questions? Douglas W. Mann, P.E., D.CE. CB&I 2481 Boca Raton Blvd. Boca Raton, FL A World of Solutions 27

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