Role of the oceans in the climate system

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Role of the oceans in the climate system"

Transcription

1 Role of the oceans in the climate system heat exchange and transport hydrological cycle and air-sea exchange of moisture wind, currents, and upwelling gas exchange and carbon cycle

2 Heat transport

3 Two Primary types of Ocean Circulation 1. Wind Driven Circulation - surface 2. Thermohaline Circulation (density) - deep Forces acting on ocean currents 1. Primary forces - initiate water movement a) wind stress b) density differences 2. Secondary forces - factors that influence the direction and nature of flow a) coriolis force b) gravity c) friction d) shape of the ocean basins

4 Schematic pressure and wind patterns

5

6 Seasonal pressure and wind patterns

7 Surface ocean currents

8 Major ocean surface currents of the world

9 Wind Driven Circulation and Upwelling in the Ocean Ocean gyre circulation Western and eastern boundary currents Surface wind and Ekman transport Coastal upwelling system Surface wind and open ocean upwelling

10 Western intensification Henry Stommel showed that intensified western boundary currents are required for flow to circulate around an ocean basin when the Coriolis parameter varies with latitude. Stream function for flow in a basin as calculated by Stommel (1948). Left: Flow for non-rotating basin or flow for a basin with constant rotation. Right: Flow when rotation varies linearly with latitude.

11 dynamic topography

12 surface ocean currents

13 Sea Surface Height sea surface height

14 wind driven surface ocean currents UNITS - 1 sverdrup (sv) - 1 million m 3 /sec for comparison, Amazon flow ~ 0.1 sv WESTERN BOUNDARY CURRENTS narrow, deep, warm, and fast current Gulf stream (N. Atlantic, 55 sv) Kuroshio current (N. Pacific) Brazil current (S. Atlantic) Agulhas current (Indian) East Australian current (S. Pacific) heat transport - Western boundary currents export a heat to high latitudes (in mid-latitudes - 10 billion calories/sec) western boundary currents

15 Gulf Stream an intensified western boundary current

16 Gulf Stream

17 wind driven surface ocean currents EASTERN BOUNDARY CURRENTS broad, shallow, cold, and slow, currents (15-20 sv) Canary current (N. Atlantic) California current (N. Pacific) Benguela current (S. Atlantic) Peru current (S. Pacific) West Australian curent (Indian) eastern boundary currents

18 wind driven surface ocean currents TRANSVERSE CURRENTS flow east and west linking the boundary currents equatorial currents (broad, shallow, Westward Flowing) driven by the trades, move east to west West Wind Drift - Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) Greatest of all currents sv west to east, driven by the persistent westerlies, isolates Antarctica from warm western boundary currents Counter currents - equatorial counter currents - return flow (west to east) along the equator undercurrents - counter currents beneath the surface ( 100 to 200m)

19 ACC Antarctic Circumpolar Current

20 Wind Driven Circulation and Upwelling in the Ocean Surface wind and Ekman transport Coastal and open ocean upwelling systems

21 An Important Observation in Oceanography The voyage of the Fram was led by Fridtjof Nansen ( ). The Fram drifted a total of 1030 miles during her 3-year entrapment. The drift of the Fram proved that no continent existed in the Artic Sea, and ice that coved the polar area throughout the year was not of glacial origin. Nansen noticed that surface ice drifts at a direction about 45 o to the right relative to the wind direction.

22 V. Walfrid Ekman ( ), a Scandinavian physicist developed the mathematical model and explanation for the relationship of wind to the ocean currents it drives.

23 Current in the Upper Ocean Layer and and Ekman Spiral Wind drives surface water in a direction 45 o to the right of the wind in the Northern Hemisphere. Deeper water continues to deflect to the right and moves at a slower speed with increase depth. Ekman transport, which is the net water movement, thus, is at right angles to the wind direction. This illustrates the principle, but in reality, the angles usually are somewhat less. The surface layer of water in which this spiraling occurs is called the Ekman layer.

24 Coastal upwelling

25 A Coastal Upwelling System Coastal upwelling

26 Equatorial upwelling

27 Equatorial upwelling

28 Antarctic divergence

29 upwelling

30 Convergence and Divergence Zones of surface convergence and divergence mark regions of sinking and rising water; driving force is Coriolis effect Convergence = two water masses flow towards each other, water is subducted: downwelling Divergence = two water masses flow apart from each other, water from depth replaces surface water: upwelling Upwelling brings oxygen and nutrients into surface layer Surface convergence occurs at: 0 in the tropical convergence, N & S in the subtropical convergence 50 N&S in the Arctic & Antarctic convergence Surface divergence occurs in three areas: on either side of the tropical convergence in the Antarctic divergence

Currents & Gyres Notes

Currents & Gyres Notes Currents & Gyres Notes Current A river of water flowing in the ocean. 2 Types of Currents Surface Currents wind-driven currents that occur in the top 100m or less Deep Currents density-driven currents

More information

Ocean Circulation. Si Hui Lee and Frances Wen. You can access ME at

Ocean Circulation. Si Hui Lee and Frances Wen. You can access ME at Ocean Circulation Si Hui Lee and Frances Wen You can access ME at http://tinyurl.com/oceancirculation Earth - the blue planet - 71% area covered by the oceans - 3/4 of ocean area between 3000-6000m deep

More information

CHAPTER 7 Ocean Circulation

CHAPTER 7 Ocean Circulation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 CHAPTER 7 Ocean Circulation Words Ocean currents Moving seawater Surface ocean currents Transfer heat from warmer to cooler areas Similar to pattern of major wind belts

More information

Introduction to Oceanography OCE 1001

Introduction to Oceanography OCE 1001 Introduction to Oceanography OCE 1001 Lecture Notes Chantale Bégin & Jessica Fry Version 2.1 10. Ocean Circulation (Trujillo, Chapter 7) Major ocean currents are stable and predictable; they have been

More information

EARTH, PLANETARY, & SPACE SCIENCES 15 INTRODUCTION TO OCEANOGRAPHY. LABORATORY SESSION #6 Fall Ocean Circulation

EARTH, PLANETARY, & SPACE SCIENCES 15 INTRODUCTION TO OCEANOGRAPHY. LABORATORY SESSION #6 Fall Ocean Circulation EARTH, PLANETARY, & SPACE SCIENCES 15 INTRODUCTION TO OCEANOGRAPHY LABORATORY SESSION #6 Fall 2017 Ocean Circulation The focus of the Lab this week is circulation of the ocean and atmosphere. Here, you

More information

10% water in the world is tied up in the surface ocean currents. (above the pycnocline) Primary source is wind: Westerlies, Trades, Polar Easterlies

10% water in the world is tied up in the surface ocean currents. (above the pycnocline) Primary source is wind: Westerlies, Trades, Polar Easterlies Oceanography Chapter 9 10% water in the world is tied up in the surface ocean currents. (above the pycnocline) Primary source is wind: Westerlies, Trades, Polar Easterlies Coriolis deflects winds (and

More information

Chapter 9: Circulation of the Ocean

Chapter 9: Circulation of the Ocean Chapter 9: Circulation of the Ocean Tropical gardens on Britain s Scilly Isles. Only 48 kilometers (30 miles) off the coast of Cornwall at 50 N, these scenic islands lie in the path of the warm waters

More information

Lesson: Ocean Circulation

Lesson: Ocean Circulation Lesson: Ocean Circulation By Keith Meldahl Corresponding to Chapter 9: Ocean Circulation As this figure shows, there is a connection between the prevailing easterly and westerly winds (discussed in Chapter

More information

Agronomy 406 World Climates

Agronomy 406 World Climates Agronomy 406 World Climates January 30, 2018 Monsoons. Ocean properties and circulation. Review for today: Online textbook: 1.3.1 (Sea water) Composition and properties. For Thursday: Rahmstorf, S.: The

More information

Zonal (East-West) Currents. Wind-Driven Ocean Currents. Zonal (East-West) Currents. Meridional (N-S) Currents

Zonal (East-West) Currents. Wind-Driven Ocean Currents. Zonal (East-West) Currents. Meridional (N-S) Currents Wind-Driven Ocean Currents Similarities between winds & surface currents Zonal (East-West) Currents Trade winds push currents westward north & south of the equator Equatorial currents. Up to 100 cm/sec.

More information

IX. Upper Ocean Circulation

IX. Upper Ocean Circulation IX. Upper Ocean Circulation World Ocean Covers 71% of Earth s surface Contains 97% of surface water Arctic Ocean NH: 61% ocean, 39% land Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Southern Ocean Indian Ocean SH: 81%

More information

OCN 201 Surface Circulation

OCN 201 Surface Circulation OCN 201 Surface Circulation Excess heat in equatorial regions requires redistribution toward the poles 1 In the Northern hemisphere, Coriolis force deflects movement to the right In the Southern hemisphere,

More information

The Ocean is a Geophysical Fluid Like the Atmosphere. The Physical Ocean. Yet Not Like the Atmosphere. ATS 760 Global Carbon Cycle The Physical Ocean

The Ocean is a Geophysical Fluid Like the Atmosphere. The Physical Ocean. Yet Not Like the Atmosphere. ATS 760 Global Carbon Cycle The Physical Ocean The Physical Ocean The Ocean is a Geophysical Fluid Like the Atmosphere Three real forces: Gravity Pressure gradients Friction Two apparent forces: Coriolis and Centrifugal Geostrophic & Hydrostatic balances

More information

The Surface Currents OCEA 101

The Surface Currents OCEA 101 The Surface Currents OCEA 101 Why should you care? - the surface ocean circulation controls the major ocean biomes - variations in ocean circulation control the supply of nutrients for marine organisms

More information

ATS150: Global Climate Change. Oceans and Climate. Icebergs. Scott Denning CSU 1

ATS150: Global Climate Change. Oceans and Climate. Icebergs. Scott Denning CSU 1 The Oceans Wind-Driven Gyre Circulations Icebergs Scott Denning CSU 1 Surface Balance of Forces friction coriolis wind stress resultant current Wind stress accelerates surface water Friction couples surface

More information

Sailing the Seas: Wind Driven Ocean Circulation Ocean Gyres

Sailing the Seas: Wind Driven Ocean Circulation Ocean Gyres Sailing the Seas: Wind Driven Ocean Circulation Ocean Gyres Ocean Currents What Happens at the Coast? Readings: Ch 9: 9.2-9.6, 9.8-9.13 Graphic: America's Cup sailboat race off Newport, Rhode Island. J.

More information

Ocean Currents that Redistribute Heat Globally

Ocean Currents that Redistribute Heat Globally Ocean Currents that Redistribute Heat Globally Ocean Circulation Ocean Currents Fig. CO7 OCEAN CURRENTS Surface ocean currents are similar to wind patterns: 1. Driven by Coriolis forces 2. Driven by winds

More information

Ocean Currents Unit (4 pts)

Ocean Currents Unit (4 pts) Name: Section: Ocean Currents Unit (Topic 9A-1) page 1 Ocean Currents Unit (4 pts) Ocean Currents An ocean current is like a river in the ocean: water is flowing traveling from place to place. Historically,

More information

Midterm Exam III November 25, 2:10

Midterm Exam III November 25, 2:10 Midterm Exam III November 25, 2:10 25, 2:10 3:25 pm, HW714 Chapters 7 (7.12 7.17), 8 and 9 (through section 9.15, included) 60 multiple choice questions this exam constitutes 22% (only) of your total (overall)

More information

Lecture 5.1 Surface Ocean Circulation. Image from Daily Mail Newspaper, UK

Lecture 5.1 Surface Ocean Circulation. Image from Daily Mail Newspaper, UK Lecture 5.1 Surface Ocean Circulation Image from Daily Mail Newspaper, UK Announcements Midterm is Thursday, consists of 25 multiple choice, 3 pages short answer questions No Scantron needed Calculators,

More information

OCN201 Spring14 1. Name: Class: Date: True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

OCN201 Spring14 1. Name: Class: Date: True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. Name: Class: _ Date: _ OCN201 Spring14 1 True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Short residence time elements are uniformly distributed in the oceans 2. Thermohaline circulation

More information

Week 6-7: Wind-driven ocean circulation. Tally s book, chapter 7

Week 6-7: Wind-driven ocean circulation. Tally s book, chapter 7 Week 6-7: Wind-driven ocean circulation Tally s book, chapter 7 Recap so far Our goal (since week 3) has been to understand large-scale ocean circulation and its underlying physics, and to learn how to

More information

Chapter 22, Section 1 - Ocean Currents. Section Objectives

Chapter 22, Section 1 - Ocean Currents. Section Objectives Chapter 22, Section 1 - Ocean Currents Section Objectives Intro Surface Currents Factors Affecting Ocean Currents Global Wind Belts (you should draw and label a diagram of the global wind belts) The Coriolis

More information

Ocean Currents Shortcut method by to learn faster

Ocean Currents Shortcut method by to learn faster Ocean Currents Shortcut method by to learn faster In our geography notes on the hydrosphere, we have seen the major movements of the ocean water. They are waves, tides and ocean currents. Having covered

More information

Ocean Currents Shortcut method by to learn faster

Ocean Currents Shortcut method by to learn faster Ocean Currents Shortcut method by to learn faster In our geography notes on the hydrosphere, we have seen the major movements of the ocean water. They are waves, tides and ocean currents. Having covered

More information

Wednesday, September 27, 2017 Test Monday, about half-way through grading. No D2L Assessment this week, watch for one next week

Wednesday, September 27, 2017 Test Monday, about half-way through grading. No D2L Assessment this week, watch for one next week Wednesday, September 27, 2017 Test Monday, about half-way through grading No D2L Assessment this week, watch for one next week Homework 3 Climate Variability (due Monday, October 9) Quick comment on Coriolis

More information

SIO 210 Final examination Wednesday, December 11, PM Sumner auditorium Name:

SIO 210 Final examination Wednesday, December 11, PM Sumner auditorium Name: SIO 210 Final examination Wednesday, December 11, 2013 2-5 PM Sumner auditorium Name: Turn off all phones, ipods, etc. and put them away. This is a closed book exam. You may use one page of notes, both

More information

Duckies have been found in Hawaii, Alaska, S. America, Scotland, Washington state and Australia as of 2012.

Duckies have been found in Hawaii, Alaska, S. America, Scotland, Washington state and Australia as of 2012. Duckies have been found in Hawaii, Alaska, S. America, Scotland, Washington state and Australia as of 2012. We learned that it takes 3 years to complete one circuit of the North Pacific Gyre flow in the

More information

OCN 201, Chemistry & Physics Section

OCN 201, Chemistry & Physics Section , A 1-April-2015 Name: Answer the True/False and Multiple Choice questions on the scantron sheet. Answer the remaining questions on this exam handout. Turn in both the scantron and exam at the end of class.

More information

Ocean Layers. Based on sunlight penetration: Based on water density: Sunlight (photosynthesis is possible) Twilight Midnight

Ocean Layers. Based on sunlight penetration: Based on water density: Sunlight (photosynthesis is possible) Twilight Midnight PART 3 Ocean Layers Based on sunlight penetration: Sunlight (photosynthesis is possible) Twilight Midnight Based on water density: Mixed layer Pycnocline (rapid change of themperature/salinity) Deep ocean

More information

Monday, October 2, Watch for new assessment (Week 4/5 review) TA s have your tests, please see key (at course website)

Monday, October 2, Watch for new assessment (Week 4/5 review) TA s have your tests, please see key (at course website) Monday, October 2, 2017 Watch for new assessment (Week 4/5 review) TA s have your tests, please see key (at course website) Homework 3 Due date Wednesday, Oct 11 (8 pm) Be ready to watch another important

More information

SURFACE CURRENTS AND TIDES

SURFACE CURRENTS AND TIDES NAME SURFACE CURRENTS AND TIDES I. Origin of surface currents Surface currents arise due to the interaction of the prevailing wis a the ocean surface. Hence the surface wi pattern (Figure 1) plays a key

More information

Assessment Schedule 2016 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate understanding of processes in the ocean system (91413)

Assessment Schedule 2016 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate understanding of processes in the ocean system (91413) NCEA Level 3 Earth & Space Science (91413) 2016 page 1 of 6 Assessment Schedule 2016 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate processes in the ocean system (91413) Evidence Statement Q Evidence with with Excellence

More information

Directed Reading. Section: Ocean Currents. a(n). FACTORS THAT AFFECT SURFACE CURRENTS

Directed Reading. Section: Ocean Currents. a(n). FACTORS THAT AFFECT SURFACE CURRENTS Skills Worksheet Directed Reading Section: Ocean Currents 1. A horizontal movement of water in a well-defined pattern is called a(n). 2. What are two ways that oceanographers identify ocean currents? 3.

More information

OCEANOGRAPHY 101. Map, and temperature, salinity & density profiles of the water column at X, near mouth of the Columbia River.

OCEANOGRAPHY 101. Map, and temperature, salinity & density profiles of the water column at X, near mouth of the Columbia River. OCEANOGRAPHY 101 EXAM 2 WINTER 00 NAME STUDENT NUMBER 1 Map, and temperature, salinity & density profiles of the water column at X, near mouth of the Columbia River. P a c i f i c O c e a n X WA Columbia

More information

Section 6. The Surface Circulation of the Ocean. What Do You See? Think About It. Investigate. Learning Outcomes

Section 6. The Surface Circulation of the Ocean. What Do You See? Think About It. Investigate. Learning Outcomes Chapter 5 Winds, Oceans, Weather, and Climate Section 6 The Surface Circulation of the Ocean What Do You See? Learning Outcomes In this section, you will Understand the general paths of surface ocean currents.

More information

Chapter 6: Atmospheric Pressure, Wind, and Global Circulation

Chapter 6: Atmospheric Pressure, Wind, and Global Circulation Discovering Physical Geography Third Edition by Alan Arbogast Chapter 6: Atmospheric Pressure, Wind, and Global Circulation Factors That Influence Air Pressure Air Pressure is the measured weight of air

More information

El Niño Lecture Notes

El Niño Lecture Notes El Niño Lecture Notes There is a huge link between the atmosphere & ocean. The oceans influence the atmosphere to affect climate, but the atmosphere also influences the ocean, which can also affect climate.

More information

OCN-201 Chemistry and Physics section

OCN-201 Chemistry and Physics section Name: Class: _ Date: _ OCN-201 Chemistry and Physics section True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Because of the dissolved salt in seawater its freezing point is lower than that

More information

(20 points) 1. ENSO is a coupled climate phenomenon in the tropical Pacific that has both regional and global impacts.

(20 points) 1. ENSO is a coupled climate phenomenon in the tropical Pacific that has both regional and global impacts. SIO 210 Problem Set 4 Answer key December 1, 2014 Due Dec. 12, 2014 (20 points) 1. ENSO is a coupled climate phenomenon in the tropical Pacific that has both regional and global impacts. (2 points) a)

More information

Lecture 13. Global Wind Patterns and the Oceans EOM

Lecture 13. Global Wind Patterns and the Oceans EOM Lecture 13. Global Wind Patterns and the Oceans EOM Global Wind Patterns and the Oceans Drag from wind exerts a force called wind stress on the ocean surface in the direction of the wind. The currents

More information

Oceanography. Chapter 7 CIRCULATION PATTERNS AND OCEAN CURRENTS

Oceanography. Chapter 7 CIRCULATION PATTERNS AND OCEAN CURRENTS Oceanography Chapter 7 CIRCULATION PATTERNS AND OCEAN CURRENTS أ. راي د مرعي الخالدي Circulation Patterns and Ocean Currents 7.1 Density-Driven Driven Circulation 7.2 Thermohaline Circulation 7.3 The Layered

More information

Wind Driven Circulation Indian Ocean and Southern Ocean

Wind Driven Circulation Indian Ocean and Southern Ocean Wind Driven Circulation Indian Ocean and Southern Ocean Lecture 18 MAR 350 Spring 2017 Reading: Knauss Chapter 7 ECCO2 model animation ecco2_sst_flow (2).mp4 Mean surface height and currents DPO Fig. 11.1

More information

SIO 210 Problem Set 3 November 4, 2011 Due Nov. 14, 2011

SIO 210 Problem Set 3 November 4, 2011 Due Nov. 14, 2011 SIO 210 Problem Set 3 November 4, 2011 Due Nov. 14, 2011 1. At 20 N, both the ocean and the atmosphere carry approximately 2 PW of heat poleward, for a total of about 4 PW (see figure). If (at this latitude)

More information

W3 Global Circulation Systems

W3 Global Circulation Systems W3 Global Circulation Systems Which regions of Earth receive the most energy from the Sun? If not for global circulation systems There would only be two narrow regions that would support life What

More information

Winds and Ocean Circulations

Winds and Ocean Circulations Winds and Ocean Circulations AT 351 Lab 5 February 20, 2008 Sea Surface Temperatures 1 Temperature Structure of the Ocean Ocean Currents 2 What causes ocean circulation? The direction of most ocean currents

More information

Ocean Currents Lecture Notes

Ocean Currents Lecture Notes Ocean Currents Lecture Notes (Topic 9A) page 1 Ocean Currents Lecture Notes Surface Currents Ocean Currents (What is an ocean current? How is a current different from a wave?) The water in an travels from

More information

Quiz name: Oceanography - Land and Sea Interaction - Quiz #2

Quiz name: Oceanography - Land and Sea Interaction - Quiz #2 Name: Quiz name: Oceanography - Land and Sea Interaction - Quiz #2 ate: 1. What is the direction of spin for gyres in the northern hemisphere? clockwise counter clockwise northern oscillation southern

More information

Figure 8.8. Figure Oceanography 10 Ocean Circulation. Gulf Stream flows at 55 million cubic meters/sec, 500 times the flow of the Amazon River

Figure 8.8. Figure Oceanography 10 Ocean Circulation. Gulf Stream flows at 55 million cubic meters/sec, 500 times the flow of the Amazon River Oceanography 10 Ocean Circulation PART 1: Introduction General types of Ocean Currents Solar Energy and the Seasons PART 2: Measuring Ocean Currents and Structure PART 3: General Surface Currents and their

More information

Write about this. Have you ever experienced a very strong wind gust? What happened? Have you ever felt a gentle breeze? What did it feel like?

Write about this. Have you ever experienced a very strong wind gust? What happened? Have you ever felt a gentle breeze? What did it feel like? Write about this. Have you ever experienced a very strong wind gust? What happened? Have you ever felt a gentle breeze? What did it feel like? How wind works Winds flow on earth based on differences in

More information

Friday, February 8 th. Winds/Coriolis Worksheet: Due Today Lab Worksheet: Finish Questions

Friday, February 8 th. Winds/Coriolis Worksheet: Due Today Lab Worksheet: Finish Questions Ocean Currents Friday, February 8 th Winds/Coriolis Worksheet: Due Today Lab Worksheet: Finish Questions Non-rotating Earth Convection cell model Add rotation and add landmasses unequal heating and cooling

More information

Summary of Lecture 10, 04 March 2008 Introduce the Hadley circulation and examine global weather patterns. Discuss jet stream dynamics jet streams

Summary of Lecture 10, 04 March 2008 Introduce the Hadley circulation and examine global weather patterns. Discuss jet stream dynamics jet streams Summary of Lecture 10, 04 March 2008 Introduce the Hadley circulation and examine global weather patterns. Discuss jet stream dynamics jet streams arise because the Coriolis force prevents Hadley-type

More information

Chapter 6. Atmospheric and Oceanic. Circulations. Circulations

Chapter 6. Atmospheric and Oceanic. Circulations. Circulations Chapter 6 Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulations Robert W. Christopherson Charlie Thomsen Winds: Transfer energy and mass (1) Balance energy equatorial energy surplus and polar energy deficit (2) Generate

More information

Prevailing Winds. The Coriolis Effect

Prevailing Winds. The Coriolis Effect Prevailing Winds 1. Wind: a movement of air in the atmosphere. Bill Nye wind (2 minutes) 2. Local or regional wind: occur in fairly small areas. 3. Prevailing winds: Major wind pattern that affect large

More information

Higher Atmosphere. Earth s Heat Budget. Global Insolation. Global Transfer Of Energy. Global Temperatures. Inter Tropical Convergence Zone

Higher Atmosphere. Earth s Heat Budget. Global Insolation. Global Transfer Of Energy. Global Temperatures. Inter Tropical Convergence Zone Higher Atmosphere Earth s Heat Budget Global Insolation Global Transfer Of Energy Global Temperatures Inter Tropical Convergence Zone Climate Graph Earth s Heat Budget Task 1 Use the Power Point to help

More information

3/22/11. General Circulation of the Atmosphere. General Circulation of the Atmosphere

3/22/11. General Circulation of the Atmosphere. General Circulation of the Atmosphere Chapter 10 General refers to the average air flow, actual winds will vary considerably. Average conditions help identify driving forces. The basic cause of the general circulation is unequal heating of

More information

Earth s oceans covers 71 % _ of the planet s surface. In reality, Earth s ocean waters are all. interconnected as part of a single large global ocean.

Earth s oceans covers 71 % _ of the planet s surface. In reality, Earth s ocean waters are all. interconnected as part of a single large global ocean. Ocean Motion Met 101: Introduction to the World's Oceans Produced by The COMET Program Geography: Name Pd. Earth s oceans covers 71 % _ of the planet s surface. In reality, Earth s ocean waters are all

More information

Chapter 10 Lecture Outline. The Restless Oceans

Chapter 10 Lecture Outline. The Restless Oceans Chapter 10 Lecture Outline The Restless Oceans Focus Question 10.1 How does the Coriolis effect influence ocean currents? The Ocean s Surface Circulation Ocean currents Masses of water that flow from one

More information

Lecture 13 El Niño/La Niña Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction. Idealized 3-Cell Model of Wind Patterns on a Rotating Earth. Previous Lecture!

Lecture 13 El Niño/La Niña Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction. Idealized 3-Cell Model of Wind Patterns on a Rotating Earth. Previous Lecture! Lecture 13 El Niño/La Niña Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction Previous Lecture! Global Winds General Circulation of winds at the surface and aloft Polar Jet Stream Subtropical Jet Stream Monsoons 1 2 Radiation

More information

General Oceanography Geology 105 Expedition #19 The Ocean and Climate

General Oceanography Geology 105 Expedition #19 The Ocean and Climate General Oceanography Geology 105 Expedition #19 The Ocean and Climate Name Not attempting to answer questions on expeditions will result in point deductions on course workbook (two or more blank answers

More information

Name Date L.O: SWBAT explain what breezes, planetary winds, ocean currents & monsoons are.

Name Date L.O: SWBAT explain what breezes, planetary winds, ocean currents & monsoons are. Name Date L.O: SWBAT explain what breezes, planetary winds, ocean currents & monsoons are. 1. A cool breeze is blowing toward the land from the ocean on a warm, cloudless summer day. This condition is

More information

Oceans and the Global Environment: Lec 2 taking physics and chemistry outdoors. the flowing, waving ocean

Oceans and the Global Environment: Lec 2 taking physics and chemistry outdoors. the flowing, waving ocean Oceans and the Global Environment: Lec 2 taking physics and chemistry outdoors the flowing, waving ocean Peter Rhines 1 Eric Lindahl 2 Bob Koon 2, Julie Wright 3 www.ocean.washington.edu/courses/has221a-08

More information

OCEANOGRAPHY STUDY GUIDE

OCEANOGRAPHY STUDY GUIDE OCEANOGRAPHY STUDY GUIDE Chapter 2 Section 1 1. Most abundant salt in ocean. Sodium chloride; NaCl 2. Amount of Earth covered by Water 71% 3. Four oceans: What are they? Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Indian

More information

Lecture 13 March 24, 2010, Wednesday. Atmospheric Pressure & Wind: Part 4

Lecture 13 March 24, 2010, Wednesday. Atmospheric Pressure & Wind: Part 4 Lecture 13 March 24, 2010, Wednesday Atmospheric Pressure & Wind: Part 4 Synoptic scale winds Mesoscale winds Microscale winds Air-sea interactions The largest synoptic scale wind. Monsoon: Arabic for

More information

Upwelling. LO: interpret effects of upwelling on production of marine ecosystems. John K. Horne University of Washington

Upwelling. LO: interpret effects of upwelling on production of marine ecosystems. John K. Horne University of Washington Upwelling LO: interpret effects of upwelling on production of marine ecosystems John K. Horne University of Washington Effects of Upwelling - Upwelling enhances biological productivity, which feeds fisheries.

More information

Ocean Motion. Ocean Currents. Before You Read. Read to Learn

Ocean Motion. Ocean Currents. Before You Read. Read to Learn chapter 18 3 Ocean Motion section 2 Ocean Currents What You ll Learn the Coriolis effect what influences surface currents the temperature of coastal waters about density currents Before You Read Imagine

More information

170 points. 38 points In your textbook, read about modern oceanography. For each item write the word that meets the description.

170 points. 38 points In your textbook, read about modern oceanography. For each item write the word that meets the description. Ch 15 Earth s Oceans SECTION 15.1 An Overview of Oceans 38 points In your textbook, read about modern oceanography. For each item write the word that meets the description. (5 points) 1. German research

More information

Lornshill Academy. Geography Department Higher Revision Physical Environments - Atmosphere

Lornshill Academy. Geography Department Higher Revision Physical Environments - Atmosphere Lornshill Academy Geography Department Higher Revision Physical Environments - Atmosphere Physical Environments Atmosphere Global heat budget The earth s energy comes from solar radiation, this incoming

More information

For Class Today How does ocean water circulate? Ocean currents, surface currents, gyres, currents & climate, upwelling, deep ocean circulation

For Class Today How does ocean water circulate? Ocean currents, surface currents, gyres, currents & climate, upwelling, deep ocean circulation For Class Today Modified Cornell Notes on section 16.1 (pg. 448-453) **Follow the guide in your ISN and previous notes for help** Heading: How does ocean water circulate? Left hand side categories: Ocean

More information

Current: large mass of continuously moving ocean water

Current: large mass of continuously moving ocean water Ocean Currents Current: large mass of continuously moving ocean water Surface Currents--Wind Circulation These waters make up about 10% of all the water in the ocean. These waters are the upper 400 meters

More information

Ocean Current Worksheet

Ocean Current Worksheet Ocean Current Worksheet Temperature Affects and Surface Currents: Surface waters of the Earth s oceans are forced to move, primarily by winds. Where winds blow in the same direction for a long period of

More information

ESS15 Lecture 12. Review, tropical oceans & El Nino, and the thermohaline ocean circulation. Please see new reading material on website.

ESS15 Lecture 12. Review, tropical oceans & El Nino, and the thermohaline ocean circulation. Please see new reading material on website. ESS15 Lecture 12 Review, tropical oceans & El Nino, and the thermohaline ocean circulation. Please see new reading material on website. Review. I-clicker exercise: In this graph of Earth s energy imbalances

More information

The Coriolis force, geostrophy, Rossby waves and the westward intensification

The Coriolis force, geostrophy, Rossby waves and the westward intensification Chapter 3 The Coriolis force, geostrophy, Rossby waves and the westward intensification The oceanic circulation is the result of a certain balance of forces. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics shows that a very

More information

Oceanography 10, T. James Noyes, El Camino College 09A-1. Ocean Currents

Oceanography 10, T. James Noyes, El Camino College 09A-1. Ocean Currents Oceanography 10, T. James Noyes, El Camino College 09A-1 INTRODUCTION TO OCEAN CURRENTS Ocean Currents What is an ocean current? Why do we care about ocean currents? An ocean current is like a river in

More information

Life in the Current. Beyond the Book. FOCUS Book

Life in the Current. Beyond the Book. FOCUS Book FOCUS Book Eddies often form on the edges of a fast-moving ocean current. Make a model of an eddy. Fill a clear plastic bowl with warm tap water. Slowly stir the water to make it swirl. Predict what will

More information

Ocean water is constantly in motion, powered by many different

Ocean water is constantly in motion, powered by many different Section 16.1 16.1 Circulation 1 FOCUS Section Objectives 16.1 Explain how surface currents develop. 16.2 Describe how ocean currents affect climate. 16.3 State the importance of upwelling. 16.4 Describe

More information

ATOMOSPERIC PRESSURE, WIND & CIRCULATION

ATOMOSPERIC PRESSURE, WIND & CIRCULATION ATOMOSPERIC PRESSURE, WIND & CIRCULATION A. INTRODUCTION Important because: pressure patterns drive wind patterns which in turn drive oceanic circulation patterns o atmospheric & oceanic circulation: major

More information

Introduction to Physical Oceanography STUDENT NOTES Date: 1. What do you know about solar radiation at different parts of the world?

Introduction to Physical Oceanography STUDENT NOTES Date: 1. What do you know about solar radiation at different parts of the world? Introduction to Physical Oceanography STUDENT NOTES Date: 1 Warm up What do you know about solar radiation at different parts of the world? What affect does the tilt of the Earth have on the northern and

More information

Leeuwin Current - Reading

Leeuwin Current - Reading Leeuwin Current At 5,500 kilometres, the Leeuwin is our longest ocean current! One of Australia s most influential natural features, the Leeuwin Current, has been confirmed as the longest continuous coastal

More information

Trade winds Prevailing westerlies east

Trade winds Prevailing westerlies east Warm-up Page: 528, 1. What is the major wind belt that is nearest the equator? Trade winds Page: 528, 2. What is the major wind belt that the most of the USA belongs to: Prevailing westerlies Page: 528,

More information

The ocean water is dynamic. Its physical

The ocean water is dynamic. Its physical CHAPTER MOVEMENTS OF OCEAN WATER The ocean water is dynamic. Its physical characteristics like temperature, salinity, density and the external forces like of the sun, moon and the winds influence the movement

More information

Global Winds AOSC 200 Tim Canty

Global Winds AOSC 200 Tim Canty Global Winds AOSC 200 Tim Canty Class Web Site: http://www.atmos.umd.edu/~tcanty/aosc200 Topics for today: Global Wind Patterns Deserts Jet Stream Monsoons Ocean transport Ocean cycles Lecture 16 Oct 24

More information

HYDROSPHERE, OCEANS AND TIDES

HYDROSPHERE, OCEANS AND TIDES HYDROSPHERE, OCEANS AND TIDES Revision 10x10learning.com 1 Chapter 12. In the Earth s Atmosphere On surface of the Earth Under the ground Hydrosphere comprises of ALL WATER Water Vapour = 0.001% Is very

More information

AOS 103. Week 4 Discussion

AOS 103. Week 4 Discussion AOS 103 Week 4 Discussion Starting from an atmospheric HIGH pressure center (e.g. for the subtropical Pacific) North Hemi 1) Deduce/draw/describe the geostrophic wind 2) Deduce/draw/describe the Ekman

More information

NOTE ->->-> DUE THURSDAY APRIL 20 TH 2006 THAT IS CORRECT I FORGOT THIS IS EASTER WEEKEND SO I HAVE EXTENDED THE DUE DATE TO THE ABOVE

NOTE ->->-> DUE THURSDAY APRIL 20 TH 2006 THAT IS CORRECT I FORGOT THIS IS EASTER WEEKEND SO I HAVE EXTENDED THE DUE DATE TO THE ABOVE GEO 130 NAME OCEANOGRAPHY TEST 3 TAKE HOME TEST SPRING 2006 NOTE ->->-> DUE THURSDAY APRIL 20 TH 2006 THAT IS CORRECT I FORGOT THIS IS EASTER WEEKEND SO I HAVE EXTENDED THE DUE DATE TO THE ABOVE This test

More information

McKnight's Physical Geography 11e

McKnight's Physical Geography 11e Chapter 2 Lecture McKnight's Physical Geography 11e Lectures Chapter 5 Atmospheric Pressure and Wind Michael Commons Ohio Northern University Atmospheric Pressure and Wind The Nature of Atmospheric Pressure

More information

Chapter 10: Global Wind Systems

Chapter 10: Global Wind Systems Chapter 10: Global Wind Systems Three-cell model of atmospheric circulation Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) Typical surface wind patterns Upper-level pressure and winds Climatological sea-level pressure

More information

Meteorology. Circle the letter that corresponds to the correct answer

Meteorology. Circle the letter that corresponds to the correct answer Chapter 7 Worksheet 2 Meteorology Name: Circle the letter that corresponds to the correct answer 1) Which of the following factors contributes to the general subsidence in the latitude zone 20 degrees

More information

Atmospheric Circulation. Recall Vertical Circulation

Atmospheric Circulation. Recall Vertical Circulation Today s topics: Atmospheric circulation: generation of wind patterns on a rotating Earth Seasonal patterns of climate: Monsoons and Sea Breezes Tropical Cyclones: Hurricanes and typhoons Atmospheric Circulation

More information

Enviro Sci 1A03 Quiz 3

Enviro Sci 1A03 Quiz 3 Enviro Sci 1A03 Quiz 3 Question 1 (1 point) Which of the following measure wind direction and speed? Question 1 options: a) aerovane b) anemometer c) wind vane d) all of the above Question 2 (1 point)

More information

Review for the second quarter. Mechanisms for cloud formation

Review for the second quarter. Mechanisms for cloud formation Review for the second quarter Mechanisms for cloud formation 1 Rising air expands and cools; Sinking air compresses and warms. (18) (24) Dry adiabatic lapse rate (10 o C/km): the rate of temperature decrease

More information

Lecture The Oceans

Lecture The Oceans Lecture 22 -- The Oceans ATMOSPHERE CIRCULATION AND WINDS Coriolis effect Prevailing winds and vertical circulation Zones of pressure, evap. & ppt. Factors modifying global winds -- Differential heating

More information

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 15 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 15 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 15 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors

More information

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 18 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 18 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 18 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors

More information

Air moves towards ITCZ in tropics because of rising air - convection. Horizontal extent of Hadley cell is modified by Friction Coriolis Force

Air moves towards ITCZ in tropics because of rising air - convection. Horizontal extent of Hadley cell is modified by Friction Coriolis Force Air moves towards ITCZ in tropics because of rising air - convection Horizontal extent of Hadley cell is modified by Friction Coriolis Force Speed from rotation Objects at rest on Earth move at very different

More information

Air Pressure and Wind

Air Pressure and Wind Air Pressure and Wind 19.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air. Air pressure is exerted in all directions down, up, and sideways. The

More information

Lecture 15 General Circulation of the Atmosphere and Ocean

Lecture 15 General Circulation of the Atmosphere and Ocean Lecture 15 General Circulation of the Atmosphere and Ocean Non-rotating model of atmospheric general circulation Hadley (1735) Cell is induced by uneven distribution of solar heating. Conceptual models

More information

Atmospheric Circulation

Atmospheric Circulation Atmospheric Circulation Why do we say Earth's temperature is moderate? It may not look like it, but various processes work to moderate Earth's temperature across the latitudes. Atmospheric circulation

More information

9/25/2014. Scales of Atmospheric Motion. Scales of Atmospheric Motion. Chapter 7: Circulation of the Atmosphere

9/25/2014. Scales of Atmospheric Motion. Scales of Atmospheric Motion. Chapter 7: Circulation of the Atmosphere Chapter 7: Circulation of the Atmosphere The Atmosphere: An Introduction to Meteorology, 12 th Lutgens Tarbuck Lectures by: Heather Gallacher, Cleveland State University Scales of Atmospheric Motion Small-

More information

The General Circulation and El Niño. Dr. Christopher M. Godfrey University of North Carolina at Asheville

The General Circulation and El Niño. Dr. Christopher M. Godfrey University of North Carolina at Asheville The General Circulation and El Niño Dr. Christopher M. Godfrey University of North Carolina at Asheville Global Circulation Model Air flow broken up into 3 cells Easterlies in the tropics (trade winds)

More information