Role of the oceans in the climate system

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Role of the oceans in the climate system"

Transcription

1 Role of the oceans in the climate system heat exchange and transport hydrological cycle and air-sea exchange of moisture wind, currents, and upwelling gas exchange and carbon cycle

2 Heat transport

3 Two Primary types of Ocean Circulation 1. Wind Driven Circulation - surface 2. Thermohaline Circulation (density) - deep Forces acting on ocean currents 1. Primary forces - initiate water movement a) wind stress b) density differences 2. Secondary forces - factors that influence the direction and nature of flow a) coriolis force b) gravity c) friction d) shape of the ocean basins

4 Schematic pressure and wind patterns

5

6 Seasonal pressure and wind patterns

7 Surface ocean currents

8 Major ocean surface currents of the world

9 Wind Driven Circulation and Upwelling in the Ocean Ocean gyre circulation Western and eastern boundary currents Surface wind and Ekman transport Coastal upwelling system Surface wind and open ocean upwelling

10 Western intensification Henry Stommel showed that intensified western boundary currents are required for flow to circulate around an ocean basin when the Coriolis parameter varies with latitude. Stream function for flow in a basin as calculated by Stommel (1948). Left: Flow for non-rotating basin or flow for a basin with constant rotation. Right: Flow when rotation varies linearly with latitude.

11 dynamic topography

12 surface ocean currents

13 Sea Surface Height sea surface height

14 wind driven surface ocean currents UNITS - 1 sverdrup (sv) - 1 million m 3 /sec for comparison, Amazon flow ~ 0.1 sv WESTERN BOUNDARY CURRENTS narrow, deep, warm, and fast current Gulf stream (N. Atlantic, 55 sv) Kuroshio current (N. Pacific) Brazil current (S. Atlantic) Agulhas current (Indian) East Australian current (S. Pacific) heat transport - Western boundary currents export a heat to high latitudes (in mid-latitudes - 10 billion calories/sec) western boundary currents

15 Gulf Stream an intensified western boundary current

16 Gulf Stream

17 wind driven surface ocean currents EASTERN BOUNDARY CURRENTS broad, shallow, cold, and slow, currents (15-20 sv) Canary current (N. Atlantic) California current (N. Pacific) Benguela current (S. Atlantic) Peru current (S. Pacific) West Australian curent (Indian) eastern boundary currents

18 wind driven surface ocean currents TRANSVERSE CURRENTS flow east and west linking the boundary currents equatorial currents (broad, shallow, Westward Flowing) driven by the trades, move east to west West Wind Drift - Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) Greatest of all currents sv west to east, driven by the persistent westerlies, isolates Antarctica from warm western boundary currents Counter currents - equatorial counter currents - return flow (west to east) along the equator undercurrents - counter currents beneath the surface ( 100 to 200m)

19 ACC Antarctic Circumpolar Current

20 Wind Driven Circulation and Upwelling in the Ocean Surface wind and Ekman transport Coastal and open ocean upwelling systems

21 An Important Observation in Oceanography The voyage of the Fram was led by Fridtjof Nansen ( ). The Fram drifted a total of 1030 miles during her 3-year entrapment. The drift of the Fram proved that no continent existed in the Artic Sea, and ice that coved the polar area throughout the year was not of glacial origin. Nansen noticed that surface ice drifts at a direction about 45 o to the right relative to the wind direction.

22 V. Walfrid Ekman ( ), a Scandinavian physicist developed the mathematical model and explanation for the relationship of wind to the ocean currents it drives.

23 Current in the Upper Ocean Layer and and Ekman Spiral Wind drives surface water in a direction 45 o to the right of the wind in the Northern Hemisphere. Deeper water continues to deflect to the right and moves at a slower speed with increase depth. Ekman transport, which is the net water movement, thus, is at right angles to the wind direction. This illustrates the principle, but in reality, the angles usually are somewhat less. The surface layer of water in which this spiraling occurs is called the Ekman layer.

24 Coastal upwelling

25 A Coastal Upwelling System Coastal upwelling

26 Equatorial upwelling

27 Equatorial upwelling

28 Antarctic divergence

29 upwelling

30 Convergence and Divergence Zones of surface convergence and divergence mark regions of sinking and rising water; driving force is Coriolis effect Convergence = two water masses flow towards each other, water is subducted: downwelling Divergence = two water masses flow apart from each other, water from depth replaces surface water: upwelling Upwelling brings oxygen and nutrients into surface layer Surface convergence occurs at: 0 in the tropical convergence, N & S in the subtropical convergence 50 N&S in the Arctic & Antarctic convergence Surface divergence occurs in three areas: on either side of the tropical convergence in the Antarctic divergence

CHAPTER 7 Ocean Circulation

CHAPTER 7 Ocean Circulation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 CHAPTER 7 Ocean Circulation Words Ocean currents Moving seawater Surface ocean currents Transfer heat from warmer to cooler areas Similar to pattern of major wind belts

More information

Lesson: Ocean Circulation

Lesson: Ocean Circulation Lesson: Ocean Circulation By Keith Meldahl Corresponding to Chapter 9: Ocean Circulation As this figure shows, there is a connection between the prevailing easterly and westerly winds (discussed in Chapter

More information

Zonal (East-West) Currents. Wind-Driven Ocean Currents. Zonal (East-West) Currents. Meridional (N-S) Currents

Zonal (East-West) Currents. Wind-Driven Ocean Currents. Zonal (East-West) Currents. Meridional (N-S) Currents Wind-Driven Ocean Currents Similarities between winds & surface currents Zonal (East-West) Currents Trade winds push currents westward north & south of the equator Equatorial currents. Up to 100 cm/sec.

More information

Ocean Currents Unit (4 pts)

Ocean Currents Unit (4 pts) Name: Section: Ocean Currents Unit (Topic 9A-1) page 1 Ocean Currents Unit (4 pts) Ocean Currents An ocean current is like a river in the ocean: water is flowing traveling from place to place. Historically,

More information

Sailing the Seas: Wind Driven Ocean Circulation Ocean Gyres

Sailing the Seas: Wind Driven Ocean Circulation Ocean Gyres Sailing the Seas: Wind Driven Ocean Circulation Ocean Gyres Ocean Currents What Happens at the Coast? Readings: Ch 9: 9.2-9.6, 9.8-9.13 Graphic: America's Cup sailboat race off Newport, Rhode Island. J.

More information

OCN201 Spring14 1. Name: Class: Date: True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

OCN201 Spring14 1. Name: Class: Date: True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. Name: Class: _ Date: _ OCN201 Spring14 1 True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Short residence time elements are uniformly distributed in the oceans 2. Thermohaline circulation

More information

Oceanography. Chapter 7 CIRCULATION PATTERNS AND OCEAN CURRENTS

Oceanography. Chapter 7 CIRCULATION PATTERNS AND OCEAN CURRENTS Oceanography Chapter 7 CIRCULATION PATTERNS AND OCEAN CURRENTS أ. راي د مرعي الخالدي Circulation Patterns and Ocean Currents 7.1 Density-Driven Driven Circulation 7.2 Thermohaline Circulation 7.3 The Layered

More information

Directed Reading. Section: Ocean Currents. a(n). FACTORS THAT AFFECT SURFACE CURRENTS

Directed Reading. Section: Ocean Currents. a(n). FACTORS THAT AFFECT SURFACE CURRENTS Skills Worksheet Directed Reading Section: Ocean Currents 1. A horizontal movement of water in a well-defined pattern is called a(n). 2. What are two ways that oceanographers identify ocean currents? 3.

More information

OCEANOGRAPHY 101. Map, and temperature, salinity & density profiles of the water column at X, near mouth of the Columbia River.

OCEANOGRAPHY 101. Map, and temperature, salinity & density profiles of the water column at X, near mouth of the Columbia River. OCEANOGRAPHY 101 EXAM 2 WINTER 00 NAME STUDENT NUMBER 1 Map, and temperature, salinity & density profiles of the water column at X, near mouth of the Columbia River. P a c i f i c O c e a n X WA Columbia

More information

El Niño Lecture Notes

El Niño Lecture Notes El Niño Lecture Notes There is a huge link between the atmosphere & ocean. The oceans influence the atmosphere to affect climate, but the atmosphere also influences the ocean, which can also affect climate.

More information

Lecture 13. Global Wind Patterns and the Oceans EOM

Lecture 13. Global Wind Patterns and the Oceans EOM Lecture 13. Global Wind Patterns and the Oceans EOM Global Wind Patterns and the Oceans Drag from wind exerts a force called wind stress on the ocean surface in the direction of the wind. The currents

More information

Name Date L.O: SWBAT explain what breezes, planetary winds, ocean currents & monsoons are.

Name Date L.O: SWBAT explain what breezes, planetary winds, ocean currents & monsoons are. Name Date L.O: SWBAT explain what breezes, planetary winds, ocean currents & monsoons are. 1. A cool breeze is blowing toward the land from the ocean on a warm, cloudless summer day. This condition is

More information

Chapter 10 Lecture Outline. The Restless Oceans

Chapter 10 Lecture Outline. The Restless Oceans Chapter 10 Lecture Outline The Restless Oceans Focus Question 10.1 How does the Coriolis effect influence ocean currents? The Ocean s Surface Circulation Ocean currents Masses of water that flow from one

More information

Ocean water is constantly in motion, powered by many different

Ocean water is constantly in motion, powered by many different Section 16.1 16.1 Circulation 1 FOCUS Section Objectives 16.1 Explain how surface currents develop. 16.2 Describe how ocean currents affect climate. 16.3 State the importance of upwelling. 16.4 Describe

More information

170 points. 38 points In your textbook, read about modern oceanography. For each item write the word that meets the description.

170 points. 38 points In your textbook, read about modern oceanography. For each item write the word that meets the description. Ch 15 Earth s Oceans SECTION 15.1 An Overview of Oceans 38 points In your textbook, read about modern oceanography. For each item write the word that meets the description. (5 points) 1. German research

More information

OCEANOGRAPHY STUDY GUIDE

OCEANOGRAPHY STUDY GUIDE OCEANOGRAPHY STUDY GUIDE Chapter 2 Section 1 1. Most abundant salt in ocean. Sodium chloride; NaCl 2. Amount of Earth covered by Water 71% 3. Four oceans: What are they? Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Indian

More information

Global Winds AOSC 200 Tim Canty

Global Winds AOSC 200 Tim Canty Global Winds AOSC 200 Tim Canty Class Web Site: http://www.atmos.umd.edu/~tcanty/aosc200 Topics for today: Global Wind Patterns Deserts Jet Stream Monsoons Ocean transport Ocean cycles Lecture 16 Oct 24

More information

Leeuwin Current - Reading

Leeuwin Current - Reading Leeuwin Current At 5,500 kilometres, the Leeuwin is our longest ocean current! One of Australia s most influential natural features, the Leeuwin Current, has been confirmed as the longest continuous coastal

More information

Air moves towards ITCZ in tropics because of rising air - convection. Horizontal extent of Hadley cell is modified by Friction Coriolis Force

Air moves towards ITCZ in tropics because of rising air - convection. Horizontal extent of Hadley cell is modified by Friction Coriolis Force Air moves towards ITCZ in tropics because of rising air - convection Horizontal extent of Hadley cell is modified by Friction Coriolis Force Speed from rotation Objects at rest on Earth move at very different

More information

McKnight's Physical Geography 11e

McKnight's Physical Geography 11e Chapter 2 Lecture McKnight's Physical Geography 11e Lectures Chapter 5 Atmospheric Pressure and Wind Michael Commons Ohio Northern University Atmospheric Pressure and Wind The Nature of Atmospheric Pressure

More information

Meteorology. Circle the letter that corresponds to the correct answer

Meteorology. Circle the letter that corresponds to the correct answer Chapter 7 Worksheet 2 Meteorology Name: Circle the letter that corresponds to the correct answer 1) Which of the following factors contributes to the general subsidence in the latitude zone 20 degrees

More information

The General Circulation and El Niño. Dr. Christopher M. Godfrey University of North Carolina at Asheville

The General Circulation and El Niño. Dr. Christopher M. Godfrey University of North Carolina at Asheville The General Circulation and El Niño Dr. Christopher M. Godfrey University of North Carolina at Asheville Global Circulation Model Air flow broken up into 3 cells Easterlies in the tropics (trade winds)

More information

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 15 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 15 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 15 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors

More information

Air Pressure and Wind

Air Pressure and Wind Air Pressure and Wind 19.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air. Air pressure is exerted in all directions down, up, and sideways. The

More information

The shallow wind driven overturning cell in the Indian Ocean

The shallow wind driven overturning cell in the Indian Ocean Agathe Germe Ecole Nationale Superieure de Techniques Avancees The shallow wind driven overturning cell in the Indian Ocean Supervisors: Dr Sybren Drijfhout and Dr Wilco Hazeleger KNMI: Koninklijk Nederland

More information

Wind and Air Pressure

Wind and Air Pressure Wind and Air Pressure When air moves above the surface of the Earth, it is called wind. Wind is caused by differences in air pressure. When a difference in pressure exists, the air will move from areas

More information

Atmospheric Circulation

Atmospheric Circulation Atmospheric Circulation Why do we say Earth's temperature is moderate? It may not look like it, but various processes work to moderate Earth's temperature across the latitudes. Atmospheric circulation

More information

Chapter. Air Pressure and Wind

Chapter. Air Pressure and Wind Chapter Air Pressure and Wind 19.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air. 19.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure

More information

Chapter. The Dynamic Ocean

Chapter. The Dynamic Ocean Chapter The Dynamic Ocean An ocean current is the mass of ocean water that flows from one place to another. 16.1 The Composition of Seawater Surface Circulation Surface Currents Surface currents are movements

More information

Coriolis Effects on Wind-Driven Ocean Currents

Coriolis Effects on Wind-Driven Ocean Currents hands-on Oceanography A Laboratory Demonstration of Coriolis Effects on Wind-Driven Ocean Currents Purpose of Activity Here we study the mechanism by which the wind drives ocean circulation. We induce

More information

Chapter 7: Circulation And The Atmosphere

Chapter 7: Circulation And The Atmosphere Chapter 7: Circulation And The Atmosphere Highly integrated wind system Main Circulation Currents: series of deep rivers of air encircling the planet Various perturbations or vortices (hurricanes, tornados,

More information

Exam 2 test bank with page references (Note that at the end of each question is a reference to the page where the answer can be found) Chapter 6 Water

Exam 2 test bank with page references (Note that at the end of each question is a reference to the page where the answer can be found) Chapter 6 Water Exam 2 test bank with page references (Note that at the end of each question is a reference to the page where the answer can be found) Chapter 6 Water 1. The hydrogen atoms in a water molecule tend to

More information

18.1 Understanding Air Pressure 18.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Measuring Air Pressure Air pressure barometer

18.1 Understanding Air Pressure 18.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Measuring Air Pressure Air pressure barometer 18.1 Understanding Air Pressure 18.1 Understanding Air Pressure Air Pressure Defined Air pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air. Air pressure is exerted in all directions down, up, and sideways.

More information

Redistribution of Solar Heat Energy

Redistribution of Solar Heat Energy Introduction to Oceanography Chris enze, NASA Ames, Public Domain, http://people.nas.nasa.gov/ ~chenze/fvgcm/frances_02.mpg Redistribution of Solar eat Energy ecture 11: 2, Atmospheric water vapor map,

More information

Equatorial upwelling. Example of regional winds of small scale

Equatorial upwelling. Example of regional winds of small scale Example of regional winds of small scale Sea and land breezes Note on Fig. 8.11. Shows the case for southern hemisphere! Coastal upwelling and downwelling. Upwelling is caused by along shore winds, that

More information

3 Global Winds and Local Winds

3 Global Winds and Local Winds CHAPTER 15 3 Global Winds and Local Winds SECTION The Atmosphere BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What causes wind? What is the Coriolis effect?

More information

and the Link between Oceans, Atmosphere, and Weather

and the Link between Oceans, Atmosphere, and Weather Geography Worksheet Instructions Using a map, atlas, or any other materials your teacher suggests, label the following on the blank map provided. 1. Label East, West, North, and South. 2. Label the following

More information

Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation-

Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- Overview: Atmosphere & Climate Atmospheric layers Heating at different latitudes Atmospheric convection cells (Hadley, Ferrel, Polar) Coriolis Force Generation of winds

More information

Global Winds and Local Winds

Global Winds and Local Winds Global Winds and Local Winds National Science Education Standards ES 1j What is the Coriolis effect? What are the major global wind systems on Earth? What Causes Wind? Wind is moving air caused by differences

More information

Chapter 4 Global Climates and Biomes

Chapter 4 Global Climates and Biomes Chapter 4 Global Climates and Biomes Global Processes Determine Weather and Climate - the short term conditions of the atmosphere in a local area. These include temperature, humidity, clouds, precipitation,

More information

Isaac Newton ( )

Isaac Newton ( ) Introduction to Climatology GEOGRAPHY 300 Isaac Newton (1642-1727) Tom Giambelluca University of Hawai i at Mānoa Atmospheric Pressure, Wind, and The General Circulation Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia

More information

ATMS 310 Tropical Dynamics

ATMS 310 Tropical Dynamics ATMS 310 Tropical Dynamics Introduction Throughout the semester we have focused on mid-latitude dynamics. This is not to say that the dynamics of other parts of the world, such as the tropics, are any

More information

Deep Water Currents Lab

Deep Water Currents Lab Deep Water Currents Lab Background: Anyone visiting the seashore is struck by the constant motion of water traveling on the surface of the ocean in the form of waves. But beneath the ocean's surface, water

More information

3 Global Winds and Local Winds

3 Global Winds and Local Winds CHAPTER 6 3 Global Winds and Local Winds SECTION The Atmosphere BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What causes wind? What is the Coriolis effect?

More information

Name Class Date. Use the terms from the following list to complete the sentences below. Each term may be used only once. Some terms may not be used.

Name Class Date. Use the terms from the following list to complete the sentences below. Each term may be used only once. Some terms may not be used. Assessment Chapter Test B The Movement of Ocean Water USING KEY TERMS Use the terms from the following list to complete the sentences below. Each term may be used only once. Some terms may not be used.

More information

3 Global Winds and Local Winds

3 Global Winds and Local Winds CHAPTER 1 3 Global Winds and Local Winds SECTION The Atmosphere BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What causes wind? What is the Coriolis effect?

More information

Indian Ocean Seasonal Cycle Jérôme Vialard (IRD) LOCEAN Paris France From Schott & McCreary (Prog. Oc.

Indian Ocean Seasonal Cycle Jérôme Vialard (IRD) LOCEAN Paris France From Schott & McCreary (Prog. Oc. Indian Ocean Seasonal Cycle Jérôme Vialard (IRD) LOCEAN Paris France jerome.vialard@ird.fr From Schott & McCreary (Prog. Oc. 2001) Outline The monsoon cycle The basin-scale dynamical response Thermocline

More information

Currents. History. Pressure Cells 3/13/17. El Nino Southern Oscillation ENSO. Teleconnections and Oscillations. Neutral Conditions

Currents. History. Pressure Cells 3/13/17. El Nino Southern Oscillation ENSO. Teleconnections and Oscillations. Neutral Conditions Teleconnections and Oscillations Teleconnection climate anomalies being related to each other over a large scale Oscillations: Macroscale movement of atmospheric systems that can influence weather, climate,

More information

surface salinities temperature profiles of the ocean; the thermocline seawater density dynamics deep ocean pressures

surface salinities temperature profiles of the ocean; the thermocline seawater density dynamics deep ocean pressures NATURE OF SEAWATER: SALINITY, TEMPERATURE, DENSITY, AND PRESSURE surface salinities temperature profiles of the ocean; the thermocline seawater density dynamics deep ocean pressures Part A. Surface Salinities

More information

Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- I

Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- I Atmospheric & Ocean Circulation- I First: need to understand basic Earth s Energy Balance 1) Incoming radiation 2) Albedo (reflectivity) 3) Blackbody Radiation Atm/ Ocean movement ultimately derives from

More information

Chapter 19 Air Pressure and Wind

Chapter 19 Air Pressure and Wind Chapter 19 Air Pressure and Wind Section 1 Understanding Air Pressure Key Concepts Describe how air pressure is exerted on objects. What happens to the mercury column of a barometer when air pressure changes?

More information

Atmospheric and Ocean Circulation Lab

Atmospheric and Ocean Circulation Lab Atmospheric and Ocean Circulation Lab name Key Objectives: The main goal of this lab is to learn about atmospheric and oceanic circulation and how these two processes are strongly inter-dependent and strongly

More information

Weather & Atmosphere Study Guide

Weather & Atmosphere Study Guide Weather & Atmosphere Study Guide 1. Draw a simple water cycle diagram using the following words: Precipitation, Evaporation, Condensation, Transpiration 2. In your own words, explain the difference between

More information

Sea and Land Breezes METR 4433, Mesoscale Meteorology Spring 2006 (some of the material in this section came from ZMAG)

Sea and Land Breezes METR 4433, Mesoscale Meteorology Spring 2006 (some of the material in this section came from ZMAG) Sea and Land Breezes METR 4433, Mesoscale Meteorology Spring 2006 (some of the material in this section came from ZMAG) 1 Definitions: The sea breeze is a local, thermally direct circulation arising from

More information

IN THE TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ON THE NEXT CLEAN PAGE, TITLE IT: WIND NOTES WIND!

IN THE TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ON THE NEXT CLEAN PAGE, TITLE IT: WIND NOTES WIND! IN THE TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ON THE NEXT CLEAN PAGE, TITLE IT: WIND NOTES WIND! Wind 8.10A recognize that the Sun provides the energy that drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing

More information

Influences on Weather and Climate Weather and Climate. Coriolis Effect

Influences on Weather and Climate Weather and Climate. Coriolis Effect Influences on Weather and limate Weather and limate oriolis Effect 1 limate is defined as the common weather conditions in one area over a long period of time. Temperature, humidity, rainfall, and wind

More information

Chapter 9 - Ocean Circulation

Chapter 9 - Ocean Circulation Chapter 9 - Ocean Circulation The Atmosphere and Ocean Circulation Systems Are Linked The global atmospheric circulation system influences the movement of air masses in general "belts" stationary wind

More information

SIXTH GRADE OCEANS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SIXTH GRADE OCEANS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES SIXTH GRADE OCEANS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SIXTH GRADE WATER WEEK 1. PRE: Evaluating components of the water cycle. LAB: Experimenting with porosity and permeability.

More information

C irculation in the middle latitudes is complex and does not fit the

C irculation in the middle latitudes is complex and does not fit the 19.3 Regional Wind Systems Section 19.3 1 FOCUS Key Concepts What causes local winds? Describe the general movement of weather in the United States. What happens when unusually strong, warm ocean currents

More information

Ocean Motion Notes. Chapter 13 & 14

Ocean Motion Notes. Chapter 13 & 14 Ocean Motion Notes Chapter 13 & 14 What is a Wave? Wave: movement of energy through a body of water How are Waves Caused? Caused mostly by wind Wind blowing on the water transmits energy to the water Size

More information

OCEANS. Main Ideas. Lesson 2: Ocean Currents Ocean Currents help distribute heat around Earth.

OCEANS. Main Ideas. Lesson 2: Ocean Currents Ocean Currents help distribute heat around Earth. Oceans Chapter 10 OCEANS Main Ideas Lesson 2: Ocean Currents Ocean Currents help distribute heat around Earth. Lesson 3: The Ocean Shore The shore is shaped by the movement of water and sand. OCEANS SO

More information

MFE 659 Lecture 2b El Niño/La Niña Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction. El Niño La Niña Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction. Intro to Ocean Circulation

MFE 659 Lecture 2b El Niño/La Niña Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction. El Niño La Niña Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction. Intro to Ocean Circulation MFE 659 Lecture 2b El Niño/La Niña Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction El Niño La Niña Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction Outline Ocean Circulation El Niño La Niña Southern Oscillation ENSO 1 2 Intro to Ocean Circulation

More information

Chapter 9 Insolation control of monsoons 2004/4/15

Chapter 9 Insolation control of monsoons 2004/4/15 Chapter 9 Insolation control of monsoons 2004/4/15 Introduction Monsoon circulations exist on Earth today because the land responds to seasonal changes in solar radiation much more quickly than does the

More information

Consequences of the Earth's Rotation

Consequences of the Earth's Rotation Consequences of the Earth's Rotation The earth rotates onits axis taking approximately 24hours to complete onerotation. This has important environmental consequences. 1. Rotation creates a diurnal cycle

More information

COASTAL UPWELLING - MONTEREY BAY CALIFORNIA (modified from The Maury Project, AMS)

COASTAL UPWELLING - MONTEREY BAY CALIFORNIA (modified from The Maury Project, AMS) Name: Date: Per: COASTAL UPWELLING - MONTEREY BAY CALIFORNIA (modified from The Maury Project, AMS) The ocean is composed of 3 distinct layers: the shallow surface mixed zone, the transition zone, and

More information

Chapter 12 Case Studies and Study Guide: Ocean Currents, Winds and Weather

Chapter 12 Case Studies and Study Guide: Ocean Currents, Winds and Weather Chapter 12 Case Studies and Study Guide: Ocean Currents, Winds and Weather Case Study 1: Shifts in Water and Air Flow during El Niño and La Niña Figure 12.17 Global sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies

More information

9.3. Storing Thermal Energy. Transferring Thermal Energy

9.3. Storing Thermal Energy. Transferring Thermal Energy 9.3 If you have been to a beach on a hot summer day, you have likely cooled off by going for a dip in the water. The water, which is cooler than you are, removes thermal energy from your body, making you

More information

ESCI 485 Air/sea Interaction Lesson 9 Equatorial Adjustment and El Nino Dr. DeCaria

ESCI 485 Air/sea Interaction Lesson 9 Equatorial Adjustment and El Nino Dr. DeCaria ESCI 485 Air/sea Interaction Lesson 9 Equatorial Adjustment and El Nino Dr. DeCaria Reference: El Nino, La Nina, and the Southern Oscillation, Philander THE TWO-LAYER SHALLOW WATER MODEL The ocean can

More information

Wind Energy. Definition of Wind Energy. Wind energy is energy from moving air.

Wind Energy. Definition of Wind Energy. Wind energy is energy from moving air. Wind Energy Definition of Wind Energy Wind energy is energy from moving air. Air has mass. When it moves, it has kinetic energy. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. How does wind form? Wind forms when

More information

The ocean in climate... El Niño

The ocean in climate... El Niño The ocean in climate... El Niño We live in the atmosphere: where is it sensitive to the ocean? What I won t talk about (very much): The ocean as a heat reservoir (passive) The thermohaline circulation

More information

Meteorology. Circle the letter that corresponds to the correct answer

Meteorology. Circle the letter that corresponds to the correct answer Chapter 6 Worksheet 2 Meteorology Name: Circle the letter that corresponds to the correct answer 1) A steep pressure gradient: a. produces light winds. b. produces strong winds. c. is only possible in

More information

Chapter 11 Tides. A tidal bore is formed when a tide arrives to an enclosed river mouth. This is a forced wave that breaks.

Chapter 11 Tides. A tidal bore is formed when a tide arrives to an enclosed river mouth. This is a forced wave that breaks. Chapter 11 Tides A tidal bore is formed when a tide arrives to an enclosed river mouth. This is a forced wave that breaks. Tidal range can be very large Tide - rhythmic oscillation of the ocean surface

More information

SESSION THREE: FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE WEATHER IN SOUTH AFRICA

SESSION THREE: FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE WEATHER IN SOUTH AFRICA SESSION THREE: FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE WEATHER IN SOUTH AFRICA KEY CONCEPTS: In this section we will focus on the following aspects: Factors determining the weather of South Africa Influence of the oceans

More information

Air Pressure and Wind. Goal: Explain the formation of wind based on differences in air pressure

Air Pressure and Wind. Goal: Explain the formation of wind based on differences in air pressure Air Pressure and Wind Goal: Explain the formation of wind based on differences in air pressure What is Air Pressure? Reminder: Air pressure is thickest near Earth s surface and becomes thinner as we move

More information

The Composition of Seawater

The Composition of Seawater The Composition of Seawater Salinity Salinity is the total amount of solid material dissolved in water. Most of the salt in seawater is sodium chloride, common table salt. Element Percent Element Percent

More information

1 What Causes Climate?

1 What Causes Climate? Section 1 What Causes Climate? 1 What Causes Climate? Objectives After this lesson, students will be able to I.4.1.1 Identify factors that influence temperature and precipitation. I.4.1.2 Explain what

More information

The first 1.5 years of INSTANT data reveal the complexities of the Indonesian Throughflow

The first 1.5 years of INSTANT data reveal the complexities of the Indonesian Throughflow The first 1.5 years of INSTANT data reveal the complexities of the Indonesian Throughflow A. Gordon 1, I. Soesilo 7, I. Brodjonegoro 7, A. Ffield 3, I. Jaya 8, R. Molcard 6, J. Sprintall 2, R. D. Susanto

More information

Chapter 10. Adjacent seas of the Pacific Ocean

Chapter 10. Adjacent seas of the Pacific Ocean Chapter 10 Adjacent seas of the Pacific Ocean Although the adjacent seas of the Pacific Ocean do not impact much on the hydrography of the oceanic basins, they cover a substantial part of its area and

More information

Traveling on a Rotating Sphere

Traveling on a Rotating Sphere Traveling on a Rotating Sphere Table of Contents Page Click the titles below to jump through the lesson 2 Spin-offs of a Rotating Sphere 3 What Do You Know? 3 Heated Fluid Circulation 4 Where Do The Trade

More information

Global Wind and Pressure Belts as a Response to the Unequal Heating of the Atmosphere

Global Wind and Pressure Belts as a Response to the Unequal Heating of the Atmosphere GRADE 11 GEOGRAPHY SESSION 3: GLOBAL AIR CIRCULATION Key Concepts In this lesson we will focus on summarising what you need to know about: The mechanics present to create global wind and pressure belts

More information

Physics 107 Ideas of Modern Physics

Physics 107 Ideas of Modern Physics Physics 107 Ideas of Modern Physics Course home page: http://uw.physics.wisc.edu/~himpsel/107/lectures/lectures.htm Syllabus: http://uw.physics.wisc.edu/~himpsel/107/lectures/syllabus.pdf Course info:

More information

The oceans are vast not only in size, but also in their ability to store and release energy.

The oceans are vast not only in size, but also in their ability to store and release energy. WHAT ENERGIES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH EARTH S OCEANS? The oceans are vast not only in size, but also in their ability to store and release energy. Scientists recognize various forms of energy in nature. Many

More information

Module 8 Ocean Circulation and Surface Processes 8.1 Introduction Winds are produced in response to radiative heating of the atmosphere.

Module 8 Ocean Circulation and Surface Processes 8.1 Introduction Winds are produced in response to radiative heating of the atmosphere. Module 8 Ocean Circulation and Surface Processes 8.1 Introduction Winds are produced in response to radiative heating of the atmosphere. These winds constitute an important forcing for ocean currents,

More information

ENSO Cycle: Recent Evolution, Current Status and Predictions. Update prepared by Climate Prediction Center / NCEP 4 September 2012

ENSO Cycle: Recent Evolution, Current Status and Predictions. Update prepared by Climate Prediction Center / NCEP 4 September 2012 ENSO Cycle: Recent Evolution, Current Status and Predictions Update prepared by Climate Prediction Center / NCEP 4 September 2012 Outline Overview Recent Evolution and Current Conditions Oceanic Niño Index

More information

These are described using length, height, period/frequency, and speed.

These are described using length, height, period/frequency, and speed. These are created by combining the gravitational pull of the Moon and Sun. The energy from these moves forward and also moves up and down. The water in these moves in a circular orbital pattern downward

More information

RESOURCE BOOKLET M13/4/ENVSO/SP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/T ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS AND SOCIETIES PAPER 2. Tuesday 7 May 2013 (afternoon) 2 hours

RESOURCE BOOKLET M13/4/ENVSO/SP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/T ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS AND SOCIETIES PAPER 2. Tuesday 7 May 2013 (afternoon) 2 hours M13/4/ENVSO/SP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/T 22136303 ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS AND SOCIETIES Standard level PAPER 2 Tuesday 7 May 2013 (afternoon) 2 hours RESOURCE BOOKLET INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES Do not open this booklet

More information

Write answers on your own paper. A. the Sun B. the Moon C. Earth s gravity D. Earth s rotation

Write answers on your own paper. A. the Sun B. the Moon C. Earth s gravity D. Earth s rotation The tmosphere Write answers on your own paper 1. What is the primary energy source that drives all weather events, including precipitation, hurricanes, and tornados?. the Sun. the Moon C. Earth s gravity

More information

THE RESTLESS SEA. https://pao.cnmoc.navy.mil/pao/educate/oceantalk2/indexrestless.htm

THE RESTLESS SEA. https://pao.cnmoc.navy.mil/pao/educate/oceantalk2/indexrestless.htm THE RESTLESS SEA Energy from the sun is the engine that drives the major ocean basin circulation patterns. Rising warm air, sinking cold air, and uneven heating of the Earth's surface create wind, the

More information

Chapter 7 Weather and Climate

Chapter 7 Weather and Climate Chapter 7 Weather and Climate *Describe what weather is, what affects it, and where it occurs. *Explain the connection between air pressure and wind. * *Many factors affect a region s weather. * *atmosphere

More information

11. WIND SYSTEMS A&B: Ch 8 (p )

11. WIND SYSTEMS A&B: Ch 8 (p ) 1 11. WIND SYSTEMS A&B: Ch 8 (p 214-238) Concepts: I. Scale II. Differential heating III. Wind direction 1. Scales: Three major divisions Space Time Micro meters seconds - minutes Meso kilometers seconds

More information

Global Wind Paerns. specific. higher. convection. rises. rotates. equator Equatorial. Subtropical High. long. lower. troposphere. sinks.

Global Wind Paerns. specific. higher. convection. rises. rotates. equator Equatorial. Subtropical High. long. lower. troposphere. sinks. Global Wind Paerns Global Winds Winds that b steadily from direcons long over distances. specific Created by the of Earth s surface. Result of Sun striking the surface at angles near the equator and at

More information

Circulation of the Atmosphere

Circulation of the Atmosphere Circulation of the Atmosphere World is made up of three regions: Atmosphere (air) Hydrosphere (water) Lithosphere (land) - Geosphere All regions interact to produce weather (day to day variations) and

More information

Climate Science INTER-ANNUAL TO DECADAL CLIMATE VARIABILITY/COASTAL UPWELLING AND COASTAL CLIMATES. MONITORING EL NIÑO and LA NIÑA

Climate Science INTER-ANNUAL TO DECADAL CLIMATE VARIABILITY/COASTAL UPWELLING AND COASTAL CLIMATES. MONITORING EL NIÑO and LA NIÑA Climate Science INTER-ANNUAL TO DECADAL CLIMATE VARIABILITY/COASTAL UPWELLING AND COASTAL CLIMATES MONITORING EL NIÑO and LA NIÑA Background: Before 1982, few Americans had ever heard of the term El Niño,

More information

Atmospheric Forces and Force Balances METR Introduction

Atmospheric Forces and Force Balances METR Introduction Atmospheric Forces and Force Balances METR 2021 Introduction In this lab you will be introduced to the forces governing atmospheric motions as well as some of the common force balances. A common theme

More information

Where do winds drive the Antarctic Circumpolar Current?

Where do winds drive the Antarctic Circumpolar Current? Click Here for Full Article GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 37,, doi:10.1029/2010gl043355, 2010 Where do winds drive the Antarctic Circumpolar Current? L. C. Allison, 1 H. L. Johnson, 2 D. P. Marshall,

More information

CEE 452/652. Week 3, Lecture 1 Mass emission rate, Atmospheric Stability. Dr. Dave DuBois Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute

CEE 452/652. Week 3, Lecture 1 Mass emission rate, Atmospheric Stability. Dr. Dave DuBois Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute CEE 452/652 Week 3, Lecture 1 Mass emission rate, Atmospheric Stability Dr. Dave DuBois Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute Today s topics Review homework Review quiz Mass emission

More information

Unit 2 World Climate Patterns

Unit 2 World Climate Patterns Unit 2 World Climate Patterns Weather the day to day or short term conditions of the atmosphere. Weather includes variables such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, cloud cover, wind, and air pressure.

More information

Monsoon. Arabic word mausim means season. Loose definition: a wind/precipitation pattern that shifts seasonally

Monsoon. Arabic word mausim means season. Loose definition: a wind/precipitation pattern that shifts seasonally Monsoon Arabic word mausim means season Loose definition: a wind/precipitation pattern that shifts seasonally Classical criteria (Ramage 1971) Prevailing wind shifts 120 o between Jan & July Average frequency

More information

Waves Part II. non-dispersive (C g =C)

Waves Part II. non-dispersive (C g =C) Waves Part II Previously we discussed Surface Gravity Waves Deep Water Waves Shallow Water Waves C g T 2 C g h dispersive (C g =C/2) Definitions: phase speed C= /T= /k non-dispersive (C g =C) group speed

More information

Envs, Geol, Phys 112: Global Climate. Energy-Atmosphere System Review Aguado & Bert, Ch. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10

Envs, Geol, Phys 112: Global Climate. Energy-Atmosphere System Review Aguado & Bert, Ch. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10 Exam 1 Review Energy-Atmosphere System Review Aguado & Bert, Ch. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10 Location on Earth (L04) Latitude & Longitude great circles, prime meridian, time zones, cardinal points, azimuth

More information