Physical Chemistry of Gases: Gas Exchange Linda Costanzo, Ph.D.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Physical Chemistry of Gases: Gas Exchange Linda Costanzo, Ph.D."

Transcription

1 Physical Chemistry of Gases: Gas Exchange Linda Costanzo, Ph.D. OBJECTIVES: After studying this lecture, the student should understand: 1. Application of the gas laws to pulmonary physiology. 2. How to calculate the concentration of a gas in blood using Henry s law. 3. Diffusion of gases according to Fick s law and the concept of lung diffusion capacity. 4. The overview of gas exchange across the alveolar-pulmonary capillary barrier and the resulting values of P O2 and P CO2 in inspired air, alveolar air, mixed venous blood, and systemic arterial blood. 5. The mechanism of diffusion-limited gas exchange. 6. The mechanism of perfusion-limited gas exchange. I. GAS LAWS A. General Gas Law This one should be familiar! PV = nrt P is pressure (mm Hg), V is volume (L), n is the number of moles of gas, R is the gas constant, and T is temperature in Kelvin. B. Boyle s Law Boyle s Law says that a given temperature, pressure times volume for a gas is constant. P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 For example, if the volume of the lungs increases (e.g., during inspiration), the pressure must decrease to keep pressure times volume constant. C. Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures It is critically important that you understand Dalton s Law since, in respiratory physiology, we are always dealing with gases in mixtures. Dalton s law of partial pressures states that the partial pressure of a gas in a mixture of gases is the pressure that gas would exert if it occupied

2 the whole volume of the mixture. P x = P B x F P x is the partial pressure of the gas, P B is barometric pressure, and F is the fractional concentration of the gas. In humidified air, we correct for water vapor pressure, P H2O, which is 47 mm Hg at 37 C. P x = ( P B B - PH2O) x F In dry atmospheric air, there is 21% O 2 and 79% N 2 (no CO 2, always remember that!) and the respective partial pressures (mm Hg) at sea level are shown in the table below. When this air is humidified air it is corrected for the obligatory water vapor pressure and the respective partial pressures are, accordingly, decreased. Gas (F) Dry Air Humidified Tracheal Air O 2 (0.21) CO 2 (0) 0 0 N 2 (0.79) H 2 O 0 47 Total (barometric) 760 mm Hg 760 mm Hg D. Henry s Law for Dissolved Gases Henry s law applies to concentrations of gases dissolved in solution. This is relevant since both O 2 and CO 2 are dissolved in blood. Important point: if equilibration has occurred, partial pressure of a gas in the liquid phase is equal to the partial pressure in the gas phase. Do not read further until you have understood this point! Henry s law is then used to convert the partial pressure of gas in the liquid to concentration of gas in the liquid. Henry s law calculates the concentration of dissolved gas that is free in solution and does not include any gas that is present in bound form (e.g., bound to hemoglobin). C x = P x x solubility C x is concentration of dissolved (free) gas in units of ml gas/100 ml blood (also called volume %), P x is the partial pressure of the gas in mm Hg, and solubility is the solubility of the gas in units of ml gas/100 ml blood/mm Hg.

3 Solubilities of O 2 and CO 2 in blood are as follows: O 2 CO 2 Solubility in blood (ml gas/100 ml blood/mm Hg) ml O 2 /100 ml blood/mm Hg 0.07 ml CO 2 /100 ml blood/mm Hg II. FORMS OF GASES IN SOLUTION In air there is only one form of gas, the gaseous form (!), which is expressed as a partial pressure in units of mm Hg. In blood, gases can be carried in dissolved form (Henry s law), bound to proteins such as hemoglobin, or chemically modified. Dissolved gas. All the relevant gases (O 2, CO 2, and N 2 ) are carried to some extent in dissolved form. Henry s law relates concentration of the gas to its partial pressure. One corollary of Henry s law is that only dissolved gas creates a partial pressure; bound and chemically modified forms do not contribute to the partial pressure of the gas. N 2 is only found in the dissolved form, it is never bound or chemically modified. Bound gas. O 2, CO 2, and CO are bind to hemoglobin, which contribute significantly to their carriage in blood. CO 2 also binds to plasma albumin. Chemically modified. The most important example of a chemically modified gas is the conversion of CO 2 to HCO 3 - in red blood cells. III. GAS EXCHANGE A. Diffusion of gases Fick s Law V x = D A ΔP Δx V x is volume of gas transferred per unit time, D is the diffusion coefficient for the gas, A is surface area, ΔP is partial pressure difference for the gas, and Δx is the thickness of the membrane (e.g., the alveolar-capillary barrier). The driving force for gas diffusion is the partial pressure difference of the gas (ΔP) across the membrane or capillary wall. For example, if the P O2 of alveolar gas is 100 mm Hg and the P O2 of mixed venous blood

4 entering the pulmonary capillaries is 40 mm Hg, then the driving force for diffusion of O 2 is the difference in partial pressures across the alveolarpulmonary capillary barrier, or 60 mm Hg. O 2 will diffuse until the P O2 of pulmonary capillary blood is 100 mm Hg, at which point the partial pressure gradient is dissipated and there is no more driving force for O 2 diffusion. The diffusion coefficient of the gas, D, is inversely correlated with the molecular weight of the gas and directly correlated with the solubility of the gas. For example, D CO2 is >> D O2 (20 times greater). In respiratory physiology, we combine diffusion coefficient, surface area, and membrane thickness in the Fick equation into a single term called lung diffusing capacity (D L ). B. Lung diffusing capacity D L As noted above, several factors (D, A, and Δx) from Fick s diffusion equation are combined into the lung diffusing capacity, D L. D L also takes into account the time required for gas (e.g., O 2 ) to combine with proteins such as hemoglobin. D L is measured with CO (i.e., DL CO) because CO transfer across the alveolar-capillary barrier is limited exclusively by diffusion. (In the measurement, called the single breath method, a single inspiration of a dilute mixture of CO is made, and the rate of disappearance of CO from alveolar gas is measured.) V x = D L x ΔP Increases in D L. D L is increased in exercise, where there are more open capillaries and more surface area for gas exchange. Decreases in D L. D L is decreased when there is an increased diffusion distance (e.g., fibrosis and pulmonary edema) or decreased surface area for diffusion (e.g., emphysema). D L also is decreased in anemia where the decreased hemoglobin concentration in blood decreases the hemoglobinbinding component of the D L measurement.

5 IV. OVERVIEW OF GAS EXCHANGE IN THE LUNGS Figure 1.

6 Figure 2. The first figure shows an alveolus and a pulmonary capillary. The pulmonary capillary is perfused with mixed venous blood from the right heart. Gas exchange occurs across the alveolar-pulmonary capillary barrier -- O 2 diffuses from alveolar gas into pulmonary capillary blood and CO 2 (produced in the tissues) diffuses from pulmonary capillary blood into alveolar gas. Pulmonary capillary blood exits the lungs by the pulmonary vein, goes to the left heart and becomes systemic arterial blood. The second figure shows the average values for P O2 and P CO2 in various locations. Dry inspired air has a P O2 of 160 mm Hg, but no CO 2. When this air enters the trachea, it is humidified and the P O2 is lowered to 150 mm Hg because of the obligatory P H2O of 47 mm Hg ([760 mm Hg - 47 mm Hg] x 0.21 = 150 mm Hg). In alveolar gas, the values for P O2 and P CO2 change significantly. (The notation small capital A indicates alveolar gas.). PA O2 is 100 mm Hg because O 2 has diffused from alveolar gas into pulmonary capillary blood until equilibration occurs. PA CO2 is 40 mm Hg because CO 2 has diffused from capillary blood into alveolar gas until equilibration occurs. In the steady state, the amounts of O 2 and CO 2 transferred correspond to the amounts of O 2 consumed and CO 2 produced by

7 the body. Thus, pulmonary capillary blood, which becomes systemic arterial blood, normally equilibrates with alveolar gas and has a Pa O2 of 100 mm Hg and a P CO2 of 40 mm Hg. This blood circulates to the tissues, where O 2 is consumed and CO 2 is produced, and mixed venous blood has a Pv O2 of 40 mm Hg and a Pv CO2 of 46 mm Hg. V. DIFFUSION- AND PERFUSION-LIMITED GAS EXCHANGE A. Diffusion-limited gas exchange In diffusion-limited gas exchange, the total amount of gas transferred across the alveolar-capillary barrier is limited by the diffusion process (driven by the partial pressure gradient for the gas). The partial pressure gradient for the gas is maintained along the length of the capillary. Diffusion-limited gas exchange is illustrated by the transport of O 2 during strenuous exercise, in lung diseases such as emphysema and fibrosis, and by the transport of CO (shown in the figure below, Panel A). In the figure, the shaded area shows the partial pressure gradient for CO between alveolar gas (PA) and pulmonary capillary blood (Pa) along the length of the capillary. Blood entering the capillary has no CO and there is a huge partial pressure gradient for CO diffusion from alveolar gas into capillary blood. As CO diffuses into the blood, it binds to hemoglobin with a high affinity and very little CO is left free in solution. Thus, the partial pressure of CO rises very little along the length of the capillary, the partial pressure gradient is maintained for the entire capillary, and diffusion continues. There is no equilibration of CO! B. Perfusion-limited gas exchange In perfusion (or blood flow)-limited gas exchange, the amount of gas transferred is limited by blood flow. The partial pressure gradient for the gas is not maintained, i.e., there is equilibration of the gas at some point along the pulmonary capillary. In these cases, the only way to transfer more gas is by increasing blood flow. Perfusion-limited gas exchange is illustrated by the transfer of O 2 (resting conditions) and CO 2, and by the transfer of N 2 O (shown in the figure below, panel B). N 2 O is not bound in the blood at all, it is only present in the free, dissolved form that creates a partial pressure. Blood entering the pulmonary capillary initially has no N 2 O. N 2 O diffuses down its partial pressure gradient from alveolar gas into pulmonary capillary blood. The partial pressure of N 2 O in blood rises rapidly (because none is bound); when it equals the partial pressure in alveolar gas, there is no more transfer of N 2 O. The only way to transfer more N 2 O is to increase blood flow.

8 Figure 3. C. O 2 sometimes perfusion-limited, sometimes diffusion-limited O 2 transport is normally perfusion-limited. That is, O 2 equilibrates between alveolar gas and pulmonary capillary blood and the partial pressure gradient (driving force for diffusion) dissipates. The only way to increase the amount of O 2 transferred is to increase blood flow. However, this is not the whole story. Under certain conditions (usually pathologic, but also including strenuous exercise), O 2 does not equilibrate; the O 2 partial pressure gradient is maintained along the length of pulmonary capillary, and O 2 transfer converts to a diffusion-limited process.

9 Figure 4. In fibrosis, O 2 transfer converts to a diffusion-limited process (Panel A). Let s assume that mixed venous P O2 is the usual value of 40 mm Hg. This blood enters the pulmonary capillaries. The diffusion process is seriously impaired, however, because of thickening of the alveolar membranes, which decreases D L. O 2 does not equilibrate between alveolar gas and pulmonary capillary blood and the blood leaving the pulmonary capillaries and becoming systemic arterial blood has a very reduced P O2. At high altitude, the person with fibrosis is in even worse shape. Now the alveolar P O2 is reduced (because of the decrease in barometric pressure). For illustration, alveolar P O2 in this example is shown as 50 mm Hg. People with normal lungs will equilibrate O 2 (albeit more slowly because of the decreased partial pressure gradient), and their arterial P O2 will be 50 mm Hg. People with fibrosis, however, will not equilibrate O 2 and their arterial P O2 will be less than 50 mm Hg (in this example, 30 mm Hg).

10 VI. PRACTICE QUESTIONS 1. If barometric pressure is 740 mm Hg, and the fractional concentration of O 2 is 21%, of N 2 is 79%, and CO 2 is 0, what are the partial pressures in a humidified mixture of these three gases? 2. If alveolar gas has a partial pressure of O 2 of 150 mm Hg, what is the concentration of dissolved O 2 in blood that is equilibrated with that alveolar gas? 3. A person at sea level breathes a mixture containing 0.1% carbon monoxide (CO). The uptake of CO was measured in the single breath method to be 28 ml/minute. What is the lung diffusing capacity for CO (DL CO )? ( Hint: V CO = DL x ΔP) 4. In perfusion-limited O 2 exchange, the P O2 at the end of the pulmonary capillary is A. Less than the P O2 in alveolar air. B. Equal to the P O2 in mixed venous blood. C. Equal to the P O2 in alveolar air. D. Greater than the P O2 of alveolar air. E. Greater than the P O2 of systemic arterial blood. EXPLANATIONS 1. P O2 = (740-47) x 0.21 = mmhg P N2 = (740-47) x 0.79 = mmhg P CO2 = (740-47) x 0 = 0 2. Pa O2 = 150 mmhg Dissolved O 2 = 150 mmhg x ml O 2 /100 ml blood/mmhg = 0.45 ml O 2 /100 ml blood, or 0.45 vol% 3. Answer: 39.3 ml/min/mm Hg 4. Answer = C. Begin by reminding yourself of the definition/description of perfusion-limited gas exchange as applied to O 2 (i.e., O 2 moves from alveolar gas into pulmonary capillary blood). Perfusion-limited means the gas equilibrates across the alveolar-pulmonary capillary barrier. Thus, the P O2 of pulmonary capillary blood equilibrates with, and becomes equal to, the P O2 of alveolar air. Additional comment on this question: Choice D (greater than P O2 of alveolar air) is a particularly bad answer because it implies that pulmonary capillary blood can achieve a higher P O2 than alveolar gas it can t! It can go as high as, but never higher!

I Physical Principles of Gas Exchange

I Physical Principles of Gas Exchange Respiratory Gases Exchange Dr Badri Paudel, M.D. 2 I Physical Principles of Gas Exchange 3 Partial pressure The pressure exerted by each type of gas in a mixture Diffusion of gases through liquids Concentration

More information

Lung Volumes and Capacities

Lung Volumes and Capacities Lung Volumes and Capacities Normally the volume of air entering the lungs during a single inspiration is approximately equal to the volume leaving on the subsequent expiration and is called the tidal volume.

More information

Chapter 17 The Respiratory System: Gas Exchange and Regulation of Breathing

Chapter 17 The Respiratory System: Gas Exchange and Regulation of Breathing Chapter 17 The Respiratory System: Gas Exchange and Regulation of Breathing Overview of Pulmonary Circulation o Diffusion of Gases o Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide o Transport of Gases in the Blood

More information

Respiratory physiology II.

Respiratory physiology II. Respiratory physiology II. Learning objectives: 29. Pulmonary gas exchange. 30. Oxygen transport in the blood. 31. Carbon-dioxide transport in the blood. 1 Pulmonary gas exchange The transport mechanism

More information

660 mm Hg (normal, 100 mm Hg, room air) Paco, (arterial Pc02) 36 mm Hg (normal, 40 mm Hg) % saturation 50% (normal, 95%-100%)

660 mm Hg (normal, 100 mm Hg, room air) Paco, (arterial Pc02) 36 mm Hg (normal, 40 mm Hg) % saturation 50% (normal, 95%-100%) 148 PHYSIOLOGY CASES AND PROBLEMS Case 26 Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Herman Neiswander is a 65-year-old retired landscape architect in northern Wisconsin. One cold January morning, he decided to warm his

More information

Respiratory System. Part 2

Respiratory System. Part 2 Respiratory System Part 2 Respiration Exchange of gases between air and body cells Three steps 1. Ventilation 2. External respiration 3. Internal respiration Ventilation Pulmonary ventilation consists

More information

Table of Contents. By Adam Hollingworth

Table of Contents. By Adam Hollingworth By Adam Hollingworth Table of Contents Oxygen Cascade... 2 Diffusion... 2 Laws of Diffusion... 2 Diffusion & Perfusion Limitations... 3 Oxygen Uptake Along Pulmon Capillary... 4 Measurement of Diffusing

More information

Gases and Respiration. Respiration Overview I

Gases and Respiration. Respiration Overview I Respiration Overview I Respiration Overview II Gas Laws Equation of State: PV = nrt Same volumes of different gases have same # of molecules BTPS: body temp, atmospheric pressure, saturated ATPS: ambient

More information

Gases and Respiration. Respiration Overview I

Gases and Respiration. Respiration Overview I Respiration Overview I Respiration Overview II Gas Laws Equation of State: PV = nrt Same volumes of different gases have same # of molecules BTPS: body temp, atmospheric pressure, saturated ATPS: ambient

More information

Pulmonary Circulation Linda Costanzo Ph.D.

Pulmonary Circulation Linda Costanzo Ph.D. Pulmonary Circulation Linda Costanzo Ph.D. OBJECTIVES: After studying this lecture, the student should understand: 1. The differences between pressures in the pulmonary and systemic circulations. 2. How

More information

PICU Resident Self-Study Tutorial The Basic Physics of Oxygen Transport. I was told that there would be no math!

PICU Resident Self-Study Tutorial The Basic Physics of Oxygen Transport. I was told that there would be no math! Physiology of Oxygen Transport PICU Resident Self-Study Tutorial I was told that there would be no math! INTRODUCTION Christopher Carroll, MD Although cells rely on oxygen for aerobic metabolism and viability,

More information

Question 1: Define vital capacity. What is its significance? Vital capacity is the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inspiration. It is about 3.5 4.5 litres in the human body. It

More information

CHAPTER 6. Oxygen Transport. Copyright 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning

CHAPTER 6. Oxygen Transport. Copyright 2008 Thomson Delmar Learning CHAPTER 6 Oxygen Transport Normal Blood Gas Value Ranges Table 6-1 OXYGEN TRANSPORT Oxygen Dissolved in the Blood Plasma Dissolve means that the gas maintains its precise molecular structure About.003

More information

These two respiratory media (air & water) impose rather different constraints on oxygen uptake:

These two respiratory media (air & water) impose rather different constraints on oxygen uptake: Topic 19: OXYGEN UPTAKE AND TRANSPORT (lectures 29-30) OBJECTIVES: 1. Be able to compare air vs. water as a respiratory medium with respect to oxygen content, diffusion coefficient, viscosity and water

More information

Chapter 13 The Respiratory System

Chapter 13 The Respiratory System Chapter 13 The Respiratory System by Dr. Jay M. Templin Brooks/Cole - Thomson Learning Atmosphere Tissue cell External respiration Alveoli of lungs 1 Ventilation or gas exchange between the atmosphere

More information

Respiratory Physiology. Adeyomoye O.I

Respiratory Physiology. Adeyomoye O.I Respiratory Physiology By Adeyomoye O.I Outline Introduction Hypoxia Dyspnea Control of breathing Ventilation/perfusion ratios Respiratory/barometric changes in exercise Intra-pulmonary & intra-pleural

More information

Applied Physics Topics 2

Applied Physics Topics 2 Applied Physics Topics 2 Dr Andrey Varvinskiy Consultant Anaesthetist Torbay Hospital, UK EDAIC Paper B Lead and Examiner TOPICS 2 Gas Laws Other Laws: Dalton, Avogadro Critical temperature Critical pressure

More information

Oxygen and Carbon dioxide Transport. Dr. Laila Al-Dokhi

Oxygen and Carbon dioxide Transport. Dr. Laila Al-Dokhi Oxygen and Carbon dioxide Transport Dr. Laila Al-Dokhi Objectives 1. Understand the forms of oxygen transport in the blood, the importance of each. 2. Differentiate between O2 capacity, O2 content and

More information

Chapter 23. Gas Exchange and Transportation

Chapter 23. Gas Exchange and Transportation Chapter 23 Gas Exchange and Transportation What is air? Mixture of gasses 78.6 % nitrogen 20.9% oxygen 0.04% carbon dioxide 0 4% water vapor depending on temperature and humidity other minor gases argon,

More information

Circulatory And Respiration

Circulatory And Respiration Circulatory And Respiration Composition Of Blood Blood Heart 200mmHg 120mmHg Aorta Artery Arteriole 50mmHg Capillary Bed Venule Vein Vena Cava Heart Differences Between Arteries and Veins Veins transport

More information

UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION MUST, AT ALL TIMES, ACCEPT THE ENTIRE CARDIAC OUTPUT

UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION MUST, AT ALL TIMES, ACCEPT THE ENTIRE CARDIAC OUTPUT UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION MUST, AT ALL TIMES, ACCEPT THE ENTIRE CARDIAC OUTPUT UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION

More information

Alveolus and Respiratory Membrane

Alveolus and Respiratory Membrane Alveolus and Respiratory Membrane thin membrane where gas exchange occurs in the lungs, simple squamous epithelium (Squamous cells have the appearance of thin, flat plates. They fit closely together in

More information

Chapter 23. Gas Exchange and Transportation

Chapter 23. Gas Exchange and Transportation Chapter 23 Gas Exchange and Transportation What is air? Mixture of gasses 78.6 % nitrogen 20.9% oxygen 0.04% carbon dioxide 0 4% water vapor depending on temperature and humidity and minor gases argon,

More information

GAS EXCHANGE & PHYSIOLOGY

GAS EXCHANGE & PHYSIOLOGY GAS EXCHANGE & PHYSIOLOGY Atmospheric Pressure Intra-Alveolar Pressure Inspiration 760 mm HG at Sea Level (= 1 atm) Pressure due to gases (N2, O2, CO2, Misc.) Pressure inside the alveolus (air sac) Phrenic

More information

Respiratory System Study Guide, Chapter 16

Respiratory System Study Guide, Chapter 16 Part I. Clinical Applications Name: Respiratory System Study Guide, Chapter 16 Lab Day/Time: 1. A person with ketoacidosis may hyperventilate. Explain why this occurs, and explain why this hyperventilation

More information

Introduction. Respiration. Chapter 10. Objectives. Objectives. The Respiratory System

Introduction. Respiration. Chapter 10. Objectives. Objectives. The Respiratory System Introduction Respiration Chapter 10 The Respiratory System Provides a means of gas exchange between the environment and the body Plays a role in the regulation of acidbase balance during exercise Objectives

More information

HCO - 3 H 2 CO 3 CO 2 + H H H + Breathing rate is regulated by blood ph and C02. CO2 and Bicarbonate act as a ph Buffer in the blood

HCO - 3 H 2 CO 3 CO 2 + H H H + Breathing rate is regulated by blood ph and C02. CO2 and Bicarbonate act as a ph Buffer in the blood Breathing rate is regulated by blood ph and C02 breathing reduces plasma [CO2]; plasma [CO2] increases breathing. When C02 levels are high, breating rate increases to blow off C02 In low C02 conditions,

More information

Chapter 13 The Respiratory System

Chapter 13 The Respiratory System VI edit Pag 451-499 Chapter 13 The Respiratory System V edit. Pag 459-509 Tissue cell Alveoli of lungs Atmosphere 1 External respiration Ventilation or gas exchange between the atmosphere and air sacs

More information

Physiology Unit 4 RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY

Physiology Unit 4 RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY Physiology Unit 4 RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY In Physiology Today Respiration External respiration ventilation gas exchange Internal respiration cellular respiration gas exchange Respiratory Cycle Inspiration

More information

VENTILATION AND PERFUSION IN HEALTH AND DISEASE. Dr.HARIPRASAD VS

VENTILATION AND PERFUSION IN HEALTH AND DISEASE. Dr.HARIPRASAD VS VENTILATION AND PERFUSION IN HEALTH AND DISEASE Dr.HARIPRASAD VS Ventilation Total ventilation - total rate of air flow in and out of the lung during normal tidal breathing. Alveolar ventilation -represents

More information

Respiration - Human 1

Respiration - Human 1 Respiration - Human 1 At the end of the lectures on respiration you should be able to, 1. Describe events in the respiratory processes 2. Discuss the mechanism of lung ventilation in human 3. Discuss the

More information

CHEM1901/3 Worksheet 8: The Ideal Gas Law: PV = nrt

CHEM1901/3 Worksheet 8: The Ideal Gas Law: PV = nrt CHEM1901/3 Worksheet 8: The Ideal Gas Law: PV = nrt The Ideal Gas Law Model 1: The Gas Laws T (K) Kelvin or absolute temperature = T ( C) + 273. T(K) is always 0 K Boyle s Law (1660). The volume of a gas

More information

Physiology of Respiration

Physiology of Respiration Physiology of Respiration External Respiration = pulmonary ventilation breathing involves 2 processes: inspiration expiration Inspiration an active process involves contraction of diaphragm innervated

More information

Recitation question # 05

Recitation question # 05 Recitation and Lab # 05 The goal of this recitations / labs is to review material related to the CV and respiratory lectures for the second test of this course. Info required to answer this recitation

More information

PROBLEM SET 9. SOLUTIONS April 23, 2004

PROBLEM SET 9. SOLUTIONS April 23, 2004 Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology HST.542J: Quantitative Physiology: Organ Transport Systems Instructors: Roger Mark and Jose Venegas MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Departments

More information

Appendix 2. Basic physical properties applied to the respiratory system

Appendix 2. Basic physical properties applied to the respiratory system Appendix 2. Basic physical properties applied to the respiratory system Fluid is a general definition of a state of matter characterized by a weak intermolecular connection (Van der Waal's cohesive forces),

More information

Chem 110 General Principles of Chemistry

Chem 110 General Principles of Chemistry CHEM110 Worksheet - Gases Chem 110 General Principles of Chemistry Chapter 9 Gases (pages 337-373) In this chapter we - first contrast gases with liquids and solids and then discuss gas pressure. - review

More information

4. For external respiration to occur effectively, you need three parameters. They are:

4. For external respiration to occur effectively, you need three parameters. They are: Self Assessment Module D Name: ANSWER KEY 1. Hypoxia should be assumed whenever the PaO 2 is below 45 mm Hg. 2. Name some clinical conditions that will result in hyperventilation (respiratory alkalosis).

More information

CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES

CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES 268 BIOLOGY CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES 17.1 Respiratory Organs 17.2 Mechanism of Breathing 17.3 Exchange of Gases 17.4 Transport of Gases 17.5 Regulation of Respiration 17.6 Disorders of

More information

NOTES: CH 42, part 2 - Gas Exchange in Animals

NOTES: CH 42, part 2 - Gas Exchange in Animals NOTES: CH 42, part 2 - Gas Exchange in Animals Functions of the Respiratory System: 1) Air distribution / gaseous exchange; 2) Filter, warm & humidify air we breathe; 3) Influence speech; 4) Help maintain

More information

Human gas exchange. Question Paper. Save My Exams! The Home of Revision. Cambridge International Examinations. 56 minutes. Time Allowed: Score: /46

Human gas exchange. Question Paper. Save My Exams! The Home of Revision. Cambridge International Examinations. 56 minutes. Time Allowed: Score: /46 Human gas exchange Question Paper Level Subject Exam oard Topic Sub Topic ooklet O Level iology ambridge International Examinations Respiration Human gas exchange Question Paper Time llowed: 56 minutes

More information

Respiration. Chapter 33

Respiration. Chapter 33 Respiration Chapter 33 Learning Objectives: Understand the basis of gas exchange and factors that influence diffusion of gases in and out of tissues Compare and contrast different respiratory systems among

More information

Chapter 13 Gases and Pressure. Pressure and Force. Pressure is the force per unit area on a surface. Force Area. Pressure =

Chapter 13 Gases and Pressure. Pressure and Force. Pressure is the force per unit area on a surface. Force Area. Pressure = Chapter 13 Gas Laws Chapter 13 Gases and Pressure Pressure and Force Pressure is the force per unit area on a surface. Pressure = Force Area Chapter 13 Gases and Pressure Gases in the Atmosphere The atmosphere

More information

Worksheet 1.7: Gas Laws. Charles Law. Guy-Lassac's Law. Standard Conditions. Abbreviations. Conversions. Gas Law s Equation Symbols

Worksheet 1.7: Gas Laws. Charles Law. Guy-Lassac's Law. Standard Conditions. Abbreviations. Conversions. Gas Law s Equation Symbols Name Block Worksheet 1.7: Gas Laws Boyle s Law Charles Law Guy-Lassac's Law Combined Gas Law For a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure PV = k The

More information

8.1 Properties of Gases. Goal: Describe the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases and the units of measurement used for gases.

8.1 Properties of Gases. Goal: Describe the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases and the units of measurement used for gases. Gases Chapter 8 Chapter 8 8.1 - Properties of Gases 8.2 Pressure and Volume (Boyle s Law) 8.3 Temperature and Volume (Charles Law) 8.4 Temperature and Pressure (Guy-Lussac s Law) 8.5 The Combined Gas Low

More information

Respiratory Pulmonary Ventilation

Respiratory Pulmonary Ventilation Respiratory Pulmonary Ventilation Pulmonary Ventilation Pulmonary ventilation is the act of breathing and the first step in the respiratory process. Pulmonary ventilation brings in air with a new supply

More information

CP Chapter 13/14 Notes The Property of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory

CP Chapter 13/14 Notes The Property of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory CP Chapter 13/14 Notes The Property of Gases Kinetic Molecular Theory Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases The word kinetic refers to. Kinetic energy is the an object has because of its motion. Kinetic Molecular

More information

Name: Period: Date: CHAPTER 10 NOTES 10.3: The Gas Laws

Name: Period: Date: CHAPTER 10 NOTES 10.3: The Gas Laws Name: Period: Date: 1. Define gas laws: CHAPTER 10 NOTES 10.3: The Gas Laws 2. What units do the following measurements need to be in to describe gases? Boyle s Law a. Temperature b. Volume c. Pressure

More information

Unit 9 Packet: Gas Laws Introduction to Gas Laws Notes:

Unit 9 Packet: Gas Laws Introduction to Gas Laws Notes: Name: Unit 9 Packet: Gas Laws Introduction to Gas Laws Notes: Block: In chemistry, the relationships between gas physical properties are described as gas laws. Some of these properties are pressure, volume,

More information

1 CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES https://biologyaipmt.com/

1 CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES https://biologyaipmt.com/ 1 CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES https://biologyaipmt.com/ CHAPTER 17 BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES Oxygen (O2) is utilised by the organisms to indirectly break down nutrient molecules like

More information

Elements that exist as gases at 25 o C and 1 atmosphere H 2, N 2, O 2, F 2, Cl 2, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn

Elements that exist as gases at 25 o C and 1 atmosphere H 2, N 2, O 2, F 2, Cl 2, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn AP Chemistry Chapter 5 Sections 5. 5.9 Note Organizer Pressure, The Gas Laws of Boyle, Charles, and Avogadro, The Ideal Gas Law, Gas Stoichiometry, Dalton s Law of Partial Pressure, The Kinetic olecular

More information

Gas Laws Chapter 14. Complete the following pressure conversion. Be sure to show how units cancel.

Gas Laws Chapter 14. Complete the following pressure conversion. Be sure to show how units cancel. Gas Laws Chapter 14 Complete the following pressure conversion. Be sure to show how units cancel. 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr = 101.3 kpa = 14.7 psi = 1.013 bar 1. The air pressure for a certain tire

More information

Gas Exchange & Circulation

Gas Exchange & Circulation Why is gas exchange important? Gas Exchange & Circulation Read Ch. 42 start with 42.5: Gas Exchange in Animals Respiration: C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2! Energy + CO 2 + H 2 O Photosynthesis: Energy + CO 2 + H 2

More information

Lab Dates. CRHS Academic Chemistry Unit 11 Gas Laws Notes

Lab Dates. CRHS Academic Chemistry Unit 11 Gas Laws Notes Name Period CRHS Academic Chemistry Unit 11 Gas Laws Notes Quiz Date Lab Dates Exam Date Notes, Homework, Exam Reviews and Their KEYS located on CRHS Academic Chemistry Website: https://cincochem.pbworks.com

More information

Chapter 13. Gases. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 1

Chapter 13. Gases. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 1 Chapter 13 Gases Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 1 Section 13.1 Pressure Why study gases? An understanding of real world phenomena. An understanding of how science works. Copyright Cengage

More information

Lecture Presentation. Chapter 10. Gases. John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Presentation. Chapter 10. Gases. John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Presentation Chapter 10 John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Characteristics of Unlike liquids and solids, gases Expand to fill their containers. Are highly compressible.

More information

Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Matter

Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Matter Gases Properties of Gases Gas Pressure Gases What gases are important for each of the following: O 2, CO 2 and/or He? A. B. C. D. 1 2 Gases What gases are important for each of the following: O 2, CO 2

More information

(a) (i) Describe how a large difference in oxygen concentration is maintained between a fish gill and the surrounding water.

(a) (i) Describe how a large difference in oxygen concentration is maintained between a fish gill and the surrounding water. 1. Answers should be written in continuous prose. Credit will be given for biological accuracy, the organisation and presentation of information and the way in which an answer is expressed. Fick s law

More information

Respiratory Physiology

Respiratory Physiology chapter 4 Respiratory Physiology I. LUNG VOLUMES AND CAPACITIES A. Lung volumes (Figure 4-1) 1. Tidal volume (TV) is the volume inspired or expired with each normal breath. 2. Inspiratory reserve volume

More information

Respiratory Physiology Gaseous Exchange

Respiratory Physiology Gaseous Exchange Respiratory Physiology Gaseous Exchange Session Objectives. What you will cover Basic anatomy of the lung including airways Breathing movements Lung volumes and capacities Compliance and Resistance in

More information

Section 01: The Pulmonary System

Section 01: The Pulmonary System Section 01: The Pulmonary System Chapter 12 Pulmonary Structure and Function Chapter 13 Gas Exchange and Transport Chapter 14 Dynamics of Pulmonary Ventilation HPHE 6710 Exercise Physiology II Dr. Cheatham

More information

(A) The partial pressure in the lungs is higher than in the blood, and oxygen diffuses out of the lungs passively.

(A) The partial pressure in the lungs is higher than in the blood, and oxygen diffuses out of the lungs passively. DAT Biology - Problem Drill 12: The Respiratory System Question No. 1 of 10 1. Which statement about the partial pressure of oxygen inside the lungs is correct? Question #01 (A) The partial pressure in

More information

Blood gas adventures at various altitudes. Friedrich Luft Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin-Buch

Blood gas adventures at various altitudes. Friedrich Luft Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin-Buch Blood gas adventures at various altitudes Friedrich Luft Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin-Buch Mount Everest 8848 M Any point in bird watching here? Respiration is gas exchange: the process

More information

Section 10-1: The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Matter. 1) How does the word kinetic apply to particles of matter?

Section 10-1: The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Matter. 1) How does the word kinetic apply to particles of matter? Kinetic-Molecular theory of Matter/Ch10, Gases/Ch11 Column notes: Answer all parts of each question IN YOUR OWN WORDS. Use the text, figures and captions as resources. Section 10-1: The Kinetic-Molecular

More information

Experiment B-3 Respiration

Experiment B-3 Respiration 1 Experiment B-3 Respiration Objectives To study the diffusion process of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli and pulmonary capillaries. To determine the percentage of oxygen in exhaled air while

More information

Chapter 22 The Respiratory System

Chapter 22 The Respiratory System Chapter 22 The Respiratory System 1 Respiration Pulmonary ventilation (breathing): movement of air into and out of the lungs External respiration: O 2 and CO 2 exchange between the lungs and the blood

More information

4.) There are no forces of attraction or repulsion between gas particles. This means that

4.) There are no forces of attraction or repulsion between gas particles. This means that KINETIC MOLECULAR (K-M) THEORY OF MATTER NOTES - based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion - assumptions of the K-M Theory 1.) Gases consist of large numbers of tiny particles that

More information

Chapter 13 Gases, Vapors, Liquids, and Solids

Chapter 13 Gases, Vapors, Liquids, and Solids Chapter 13 Gases, Vapors, Liquids, and Solids Property is meaning any measurable characteristic of a substance, such as pressure, volume, or temperature, or a characteristic that can be calculated or deduced,

More information

Chapter 5: Gases 5.1 Pressure Why study gases? An understanding of real world phenomena. An understanding of how science works.

Chapter 5: Gases 5.1 Pressure Why study gases? An understanding of real world phenomena. An understanding of how science works. Chapter 5: Gases 5.1 Pressure Why study gases? An understanding of real world phenomena. An understanding of how science works. A Gas Uniformly fills any container. Easily compressed. Mixes completely

More information

Exam Key. NROSCI/BIOSC 1070 and MSNBIO 2070 Exam # 2 October 28, 2016 Total POINTS: % of grade in class

Exam Key. NROSCI/BIOSC 1070 and MSNBIO 2070 Exam # 2 October 28, 2016 Total POINTS: % of grade in class NROSCI/BIOSC 1070 and MSNBIO 2070 Exam # 2 October 28, 2016 Total POINTS: 100 20% of grade in class 1) An arterial blood sample for a patient at sea level is obtained, and the following physiological values

More information

1. [Chang7 5.P.013.] Convert 295 mmhg to kpa. kpa Convert 2.0 kpa to mmhg. mmhg

1. [Chang7 5.P.013.] Convert 295 mmhg to kpa. kpa Convert 2.0 kpa to mmhg. mmhg Score 1. [Chang7 5.P.013.] Convert 295 mmhg to kpa. kpa Convert 2.0 kpa to mmhg. mmhg 2. [Chang7 5.P.019.] The volume of a gas is 5.80 L, measured at 1.00 atm. What is the pressure of the gas in mmhg if

More information

Fall 2004 Homework Problem Set 9 Due Wednesday, November 24, at start of class

Fall 2004 Homework Problem Set 9 Due Wednesday, November 24, at start of class 0.30 Fall 004 Homework Problem Set 9 Due Wednesday, November 4, at start of class Part A. Consider an iron surface which serves as a catalyst for the production of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen. The

More information

THE GAS STATE. Unit 4. CHAPTER KEY TERMS HOME WORK 9.1 Kinetic Molecular Theory States of Matter Solid, Liquid, gas.

THE GAS STATE. Unit 4. CHAPTER KEY TERMS HOME WORK 9.1 Kinetic Molecular Theory States of Matter Solid, Liquid, gas. Unit 4 THE GAS STATE CHAPTER KEY TERMS HOME WORK 9. Kinetic Molecular Theory States of Matter Solid, Liquid, gas Page 4 # to 4 9. Boyles Law P α /V PV = Constant P V = P V Pressure Atmospheric Pressure

More information

UNIT 4 IB MATERIAL PARTICLE BEHAVIOR OF MATTER PHASES & ATTRACTIONS

UNIT 4 IB MATERIAL PARTICLE BEHAVIOR OF MATTER PHASES & ATTRACTIONS UNIT 4 IB MATERIAL Name: PARTICLE BEHAVIOR OF MATTER PHASES & ATTRACTIONS ESSENTIALS: Know, Understand, and Be Able To Apply Avogadro s law to calculate reacting volumes of gases. Apply the concept of

More information

Rodney Shandukani 14/03/2012

Rodney Shandukani 14/03/2012 Rodney Shandukani 14/03/2012 OXYGEN THERAPY Aerobic metabolism accounts for 90% of Oxygen consumption by tissues. generates ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. Oxygen cascade: Oxygen exerts a partial pressure,

More information

Multiple Choice (40%)

Multiple Choice (40%) AP Chemistry Test (Chapter 5) Please do not write on this test thank you! Multiple Choice (40%) 1) A sealed rigid container is filled with three ideal gases: A, B and C. The partial pressure of each gas

More information

(Slide 1) Lecture Notes: Respiratory System

(Slide 1) Lecture Notes: Respiratory System (Slide 1) Lecture Notes: Respiratory System I. (Slide 2) The Respiratory Tract A) Major structures and regions of the respiratory Tract/Route INTO body 1) nose 2) nasal cavity 3) pharynx 4) glottis 5)

More information

BASIC PHYSICS APPLIED TO ANAESTHESIOLOGY

BASIC PHYSICS APPLIED TO ANAESTHESIOLOGY BASIC PHYSICS APPLIED TO ANAESTHESIOLOGY Dr.R.Selvakumar.M.D.D.A.DNB Professor of Anaesthesiology, K.A.P.Viswanatham Govt medical college, Trichy. The current practice of Anaesthesiology demands knowledge

More information

UNIFYING CONCEPTS OF ANIMAL CIRCULATION

UNIFYING CONCEPTS OF ANIMAL CIRCULATION UNIFYING CONCEPTS OF ANIMAL CIRCULATION Every organism must exchange materials with its environment, relying upon diffusion, the spontaneous movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to

More information

Behavior of Gases Chapter 12 Assignment & Problem Set

Behavior of Gases Chapter 12 Assignment & Problem Set Behavior of Gases Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Behavior of Gases 2 Study Guide: Things You Must Know Vocabulary (know the definition

More information

Name: Chapter 13: Gases

Name: Chapter 13: Gases Name: Chapter 13: Gases Gases and gas behavior is one of the most important and most fun things to learn during your year in chemistry. Here are all of the gas notes and worksheets in two packets. We will

More information

medical physiology :: Pulmonary Physiology in a Nutshell by:

medical physiology :: Pulmonary Physiology in a Nutshell by: medical physiology :: Pulmonary Physiology in a Nutshell by: Johan H Koeslag Medical Physiology Stellenbosch University PO Box 19063 Tygerberg, 7505. South Africa Mail me INTRODUCTION The lungs are not

More information

RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY. Anaesthesiology Block 18 (GNK 586) Prof Pierre Fourie

RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY. Anaesthesiology Block 18 (GNK 586) Prof Pierre Fourie RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY Anaesthesiology Block 18 (GNK 586) Prof Pierre Fourie Outline Ventilation Diffusion Perfusion Ventilation-Perfusion relationship Work of breathing Control of Ventilation 2 This image

More information

Chemistry HP Unit 6 Gases. Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 6 will assess the following:) 6. Gases

Chemistry HP Unit 6 Gases. Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 6 will assess the following:) 6. Gases Chemistry HP Unit 6 Gases Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 6 will assess the following:) 6. Gases 6-1. Define pressure using a mathematical equation. 6-2. Perform calculations involving pressure,

More information

Gas Laws V 1 V 2 T 1. Gas Laws.notebook. May 05, T = k P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2. = 70 kpa. P. V = k. k = 1 atm = kpa

Gas Laws V 1 V 2 T 1. Gas Laws.notebook. May 05, T = k P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2. = 70 kpa. P. V = k. k = 1 atm = kpa Gas Laws At constant temperature, all gases behave the same when compressed As increasing pressure is applied to a gas in a closed container, the volume of the gas decreases he product of pressure and

More information

alveoli Chapter 42. Gas Exchange elephant seals gills AP Biology

alveoli Chapter 42. Gas Exchange elephant seals gills AP Biology alveoli Chapter 42. Gas Exchange gills elephant seals Gas exchange O 2 & CO 2 exchange exchange between environment & cells provides O 2 for aerobic cellular respiration need moist membrane need high

More information

Diffusion. Dr. Gyanendra Agrawal Senior Resident Deptt. of Pulmonary Medicine PGIMER, Chandigarh

Diffusion. Dr. Gyanendra Agrawal Senior Resident Deptt. of Pulmonary Medicine PGIMER, Chandigarh Diffusion Dr. Gyanendra Agrawal Senior Resident Deptt. of Pulmonary Medicine PGIMER, Chandigarh Diffusion Primary function of lung gas exchange Movement of gas across the blood gas interface is by simple

More information

Date: Period: Gas Laws Worksheet #1 - Boyle s, Charles, Gay-Lussac s, and Combined Gas Law

Date: Period: Gas Laws Worksheet #1 - Boyle s, Charles, Gay-Lussac s, and Combined Gas Law Name: Date: Period: Gas Laws Worksheet #1 - Boyle s, Charles, Gay-Lussac s, and Combined Gas Law Boyle s Law: V1P1 = V2P2 1. A gas sample contained in a cylinder equipped with a moveable piston occupied

More information

Basic Concepts of Chemistry Notes for Students [Chapter 10, page 1] D J Weinkauff - Nerinx Hall High School. Chapter 10 Gases

Basic Concepts of Chemistry Notes for Students [Chapter 10, page 1] D J Weinkauff - Nerinx Hall High School. Chapter 10 Gases Basic Concepts of Chemistry Notes for Students [Chapter 10, page 1] Chapter 10 Gases We have talked a little about gases in Chapter 3 and we dealt briefly with them in our stoichiometric calculations in

More information

PROPERTIES OF GASES. [MH5; Ch 5, (only)]

PROPERTIES OF GASES. [MH5; Ch 5, (only)] PROPERTIES OF GASES [MH5; Ch 5, 5.1-5.5 (only)] FEATURES OF A GAS Molecules in a gas are a long way apart (under normal conditions). Molecules in a gas are in rapid motion in all directions. The forces

More information

LUNG CLEARANCE INDEX. COR-MAN IN Issue A, Rev INNOVISION ApS Skovvænget 2 DK-5620 Glamsbjerg Denmark

LUNG CLEARANCE INDEX. COR-MAN IN Issue A, Rev INNOVISION ApS Skovvænget 2 DK-5620 Glamsbjerg Denmark LUNG CLEARANCE INDEX METHOD COR-MAN-0000-008-IN Issue A, Rev. 3 2013-07-01 INNOVISION ApS Skovvænget 2 DK-5620 Glamsbjerg Denmark Tel.: +45 65 95 91 00 Fax: +45 65 95 78 00 info@innovision.dk www.innovision.dk

More information

Chapter 16 Respiration. Respiration. Steps in Respiration. Functions of the respiratory system

Chapter 16 Respiration. Respiration. Steps in Respiration. Functions of the respiratory system Chapter 16 Respiration Functions of the respiratory system Respiration The term respiration includes 3 separate functions: Ventilation: Breathing. Gas exchange: Occurs between air and blood in the lungs.

More information

Lecture 8: Heme/Non Heme Iron Proteins and O 2 Management II. Plus a bit of catalysis in Oxygen processes

Lecture 8: Heme/Non Heme Iron Proteins and O 2 Management II. Plus a bit of catalysis in Oxygen processes Lecture 8: Heme/Non Heme Iron Proteins and O 2 Management II Plus a bit of catalysis in Oxygen processes Hemoglobin Key Properties Ubiquitous O2 transport protein A globular soluble protein, 2X2 chains

More information

Chapter 11: Gases: Homework: Read Chapter 11. Keep up with MasteringChemistry and workshops

Chapter 11: Gases: Homework: Read Chapter 11. Keep up with MasteringChemistry and workshops C h e m i s t r y 1 2 C h a p t e r 11 G a s e s P a g e 1 Chapter 11: Gases: Homework: Read Chapter 11. Keep up with MasteringChemistry and workshops Gas Properties: Gases have high kinetic energy low

More information

States of Matter Review

States of Matter Review States of Matter Review May 13 8:16 PM Physical States of Matter (Phases) Solid Liquid Melting Gas Condensation Freezing Evaporation Deposition Sublimation Sep 13 6:04 PM 1 May 13 8:11 PM Gases Chapter

More information

Circulation and Gas Exchange Chapter 42

Circulation and Gas Exchange Chapter 42 Circulation and Gas Exchange Chapter 42 Circulatory systems link exchange surfaces with cells throughout the body Diffusion is only efficient over small distances In small and/or thin animals, cells can

More information

UNIT 10 - GASES. Notes & Worksheets - Honors

UNIT 10 - GASES. Notes & Worksheets - Honors Ideal Gas Equation 1 WKSHT 1.) What is the pressure exerted by 2.0 moles of an ideal gas when it occupies a volume of 12.0 L at 373 K? 2.) A flashbulb of volume 2.6 cm 3 contains O 2 gas at a pressure

More information

EXPERIMENT 8 Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor

EXPERIMENT 8 Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor EXPERIMENT 8 Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor Purpose: In this experiment you will use the ideal gas law to calculate the molecular weight of a volatile liquid compound by measuring the mass,

More information

Name Unit 9 Notes: Gas Laws Period. Complete throughout unit. Due on test day!

Name Unit 9 Notes: Gas Laws Period. Complete throughout unit. Due on test day! Name Unit 9 Notes: Gas Laws Period Skills: 1. Gases and Entropy 2. Distinguish between Ideal and Real gases 3. Understand KMT and Avogadro s Law 4. Identify and Solve Boyle s Law Problems 5. Identify and

More information